Photosynthesis in Wetlands

  • S. Reza PezeshkiEmail author
Reference work entry


Several environmental factors influence plant photosynthetic process in wetlands, thus, affecting growth, productivity, and overall wetland functioning. Assessment of photosynthetic functioning is critical to the understanding of the range, threshold, and optimal conditions for plant growth in wetlands. In most wetlands, flooding is the predominant environmental factor although in certain wetlands other factors such as periodic drought, salinity, and temperature extremes may also affect plants. This paper focuses on photosynthetic responses to changes in wetland conditions following flooding events. Soil flooding leads to soil anoxia that is accompanied by production of many soil substances, known to be harmful to plants. As a result, wetland plants may suffer periodic stresses leading to physiological dysfunctions and reduced photosynthesis. The contribution of these soil compounds to the overall photosynthetic reductions, as well as plant response mechanisms involved are discussed. Also, additional key references on the topic are provided.


Carbon assimilation Flooding Plant stress Soil phytotoxins Wetlands 


  1. Armstrong J, Armstrong W, Beckett PM, Halder JE, Lythe S, Holt R, Sinclair A. Pathways of aeration and the mechanisms and beneficial effects of humidity- and venturi-induced convections in Phragmites australis. Aquat Bot. 1996;54:177–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Drew MC. Sensing soil oxygen. Plant Cell Environ. 1990;13:681–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Kennedy RA, Fox TC, Everard JD, Rumpho ME. Biochemical adaptations to anoxia: potential role of mitochondrial metabolism to flood tolerance in Echinochloa phyllopogon (barnyard grass). In: Jackson MB, Davies DD, Lambers H, editors. Plant life under oxygen deprivation. The Hague: SPB Academic Publishing; 1991. p. 217–27.Google Scholar
  4. Mitsch WJ, Gosselink JG. Wetlands. 4th ed. New York: Wiley; 2007. p. 582.Google Scholar
  5. Pezeshki SR. Plant responses to flooding. In: Wilkinson RE, editor. Plant-environment interactions. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1994. p. 289–321.Google Scholar
  6. Pezeshki SR. Wetland plant responses to flooding. Environ Exp Bot. 2001;46:299–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Pezeshki SR, Anderson PH. Responses of three bottomland species with different flood tolerance capabilities to various flooding regimes. Wetl Ecol Manag. 1997;4:245–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Pezeshki SR, Delaune D. Soil oxidation-reduction in wetlands and its impact on plant. Biology. 2012;1:196–221.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Reddy KR, DeLaune RD. Biogeochemistry of Wetlands: science and applications. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2008. p. 774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of MemphisMemphisUSA

Personalised recommendations