Symbioses: Assisting Plant Success in Aquatic Settings

  • Kevin J. StevensEmail author
  • Bishnu R. Twanabasu
  • Demetra Kandalepas
Reference work entry


Plants form associations with fungi in leaves, stems, and roots. Mycorrhizas develop in roots. Generally, plants benefit through increased nutrition in exchange for carbohydrates. Mycorrhizas are associated with increased tolerance to environmental stressors and competitive ability. While water quality and quantity affect mycorrhizas, several types are found in wetlands. Arbuscular mycorrhizas are the most widespread, being characterized by internal branched structures (arbuscules). Dark septate endophytes are a poorly studied but wide-ranging group that are seen as darkly colored hyphae on and within roots. Ectomycorrhizas are associated with tree species and while present in wetlands, their function is unclear. Orchids and ericaceous plants form mycorrhrizas called orchid and ericoid mycorrhizas; their functions in wetland plants are also poorly studied. Fungi living in shoot tissues (shoot endophytes) are ubiquitous being found in terrestrial and wetland environments. While altered hydrology can affect wetland endophyte ecology, the impacts on vegetation are currently unknown.


Symbiosis Mycorrhiza Shoot endophytes Fungi Roots Translocation Macronutrients 


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kevin J. Stevens
    • 1
    Email author
  • Bishnu R. Twanabasu
    • 2
  • Demetra Kandalepas
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of BiologyWilfrid Laurier UniversityWaterlooCanada
  2. 2.Weatherford CollegeWeatherfordUSA
  3. 3.Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Tulane UniversityNew OrleansUSA

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