The Wetland Book pp 1269-1278 | Cite as

Surface Water and the Maintenance of Hydrological Regimes

  • Jörg HelmschrotEmail author
Reference work entry


Wetlands provide essential ecosystem functions and services which are mostly influenced by the specifics of its hydrological regime. Reflecting the spatio-temporal pattern of inflow, storage and outflow of water of a specific wetland, the wetland regime varies with the specific wetland type and the given, often interacting, environmental conditions. In order to remediate, mitigate and prevent human and climate change impacts, the majority of efforts to maintain or restore the hydrological regime focus on the stabilization of water flow dynamics.


Hydrological regime Hydrological functioning Wetland types Human impact Wetland restoration Frequency Timing Extent 


  1. Acreman MC, Fisher J, Stratford CJ, Mould DJ, Mountford JO. Hydrological science and wetland restoration: some case studies from Europe. Hydr Earth Syst Sci. 2007;11:158–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brammer H. Geographical complexities of detailed impacts assessment for the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta of Bangladesh. In: Warrick RA, Barrow EM, Wigley TML, editors. Climate and sea level changeobservations, projections and implications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1993. p. 246–62.Google Scholar
  3. Brandner LM, Florax RJGM, Vermaat JE. The empirics of wetland valuation: a comprehensive summary and a meta-analysis of the literature. Env Res Econ. 2006;33:223–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bullock A, Acreman M. The role of wetlands in the hydrological cycle. Hydr Earth Sys Sci. 2003;7:358–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Faulkner S, Barrow Jr W, Keeland B, Walls S, Telesco D. Effects of conservation practices on wetland ecosystem services in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Ecol Appl. 2011;21:31–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Frazier P, Page K. The effect of river regulation on floodplain wetland inundation, Murrumbidgee River. Aust Marine Freshwat Res. 2006;57:133–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Galat DL, Fredrikson LH, Humburg DD, Bataille KJ, Bodie JR, Dohrenwend J, Gelwicks GT, Havel JE, Helmers DL, Hooker JB, Jones JR, Knowlton MF, Kubisiak J, Mazourek J, McCoplin AC, Renken RB, Semlitsch RD. Flooding to restore connectivity of regulated, large-river wetlands. BioScience. 1998;48:721–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Heiler G, Hein T, Schiemer F, Bornette G. Hydrological connectivity and flood pulses as the central aspects for the integrity of a river-floodplain system. Regul Rivers Res Manag. 1995;11:351–61. Scholar
  9. Helmschrot J. An integrated, landscape-based approach to model the formation and hydrological functioning of wetlands in semiarid headwater catchments of the Umzimvubu River, South Africa. Göttingen: Sierke Verlag; 2006.Google Scholar
  10. Hilbich C, Helmschrot J, Mäusbacher R, Daut G. A landscape-based model to characterize the evolution and recent dynamics of wetlands in the Umzimvubu headwaters, Eastern Cape, South Africa. In: Kotowski W, Maltby E, Miroslaw-Swiatek D, Okruszko T, Szatylowicz J, editors. Wetlands: modelling, monitoring, management. London: Taylor & Francis; 2007. p. 61–9.Google Scholar
  11. Hill NM, Keddy PA, Wisheu IC. A hydrological model for predicting the effects of dams on the shoreline vegetation of lakes and reservoirs. Environ Manag. 1998;22:723–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Holden J, Chapman PJ, Labadz JC. Artificial drainage of peatlands: hydrological and hydrochemical process and wetland restoration. Prog Phys Geog. 2004;28:95–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Johnson WC, Werner B, Guntenspergen GR, Voldseth RA, Millett B, Naugle DE, Tulbure M, Carroll RWH, Tracy J, Olawsky C. Prairie wetland complexes as landscape functional units in a changing climate. BioScience. 2010;60:128–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kennish MJ. Coastal salt marsh systems in the U.S.: a review of anthropogenic impacts. J Coastal Res. 2001;17:731–48.Google Scholar
  15. Lawrie R, Chrystal C, Stretch D. On the role of the Mfolozi in the functioning of St Lucia: Water Balance and Hydrodynamics. WRC Report No. KV 255/10: 99-109. 2011.Google Scholar
  16. López-Rosas H, Moreno-Casasola P, López-Barrera F, Sánchez-Higueredo LE, Espejel-González VE, Vázquez J. Interdune wetland restoration in Central Veracruz, Mexico: plant diversity recovery mediated by the hydroperiod. In: Restoration of coastal dunes. Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 255–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lowry C, Loheide S, Deems J, Lundquist J. Linking snowmelt derived recharge and groundwater flow in a high elevation meadow system, Sierra Nevada Mountains, California. Hydrol Proc. 2010;24:2821–33. Scholar
  18. Mitsch WJ, Gosselink JG. Wetlands. 4th ed. New York: Wiley; 2007.Google Scholar
  19. Morris JT, Sundareshwar PV, Nietch CT, Kjerfve B, Cahoon DR. Response of coastal wetlands to rising sea level. Ecol. 2002;83:2869–77.[2869:ROCWTR]2.0.CO;2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Müller Schmied H, Helmschrot J, Flügel W-A. Hydrological functioning of a small wetland patch within a headwater environment in Thuringia, Germany. In: Mander Ü, editor, Wetlands and climate change: new challenges for wetland research, 3rd Annual Meeting of the European Chapter of the Society of Wetland Scientists (SWS), Publicationes Instituti Geographici Universitatis Tartuensis, vol. 106, pp. 70–2, Tartu; 2008.Google Scholar
  21. Nishimura A, Tsuyuzaki S. Effects of water level via controlling water chemistry on re-vegetation patterns after peat mining. Wetlands. 2014;34:117–127. Scholar
  22. Phillips MR, Jones AL. Erosion and tourism infrastructure in the coastal zone: problems, consequences and management. Tour Manag. 2006;27:517–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Schimelpfenig DW, Cooper DJ, Chimner RA. Effectiveness of ditch blockage for restoring hydrologic and soil processes in mountain peatlands. Rest Ecol. 2014;22:257–65. Scholar
  24. Steudel T, Göhmann H, Flügel W-A, Helmschrot J. Hydrological assessment of hydrological dynamics in the upper Okavango. Biodiv Ecol. 2013;5:247–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Tiner RW. Field guide to coastal wetland plants of the Southeastern United States. Amherst: The University of Massachusetts Press; 1993.Google Scholar
  26. Zhang X, Liu H, Baker C, Graham S. Restoration approaches used for degraded peatlands in Ruoergai (Zoige), Tibetan Plateau, China, for sustainable land management. Ecol Eng. 2012;38:86–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.SASSCAL Regional Secretariat, Directorate of Science and Technology and Capacity DevelopmentSouthern African Science Service Centre for Climate Change and Adaptive Land Management (SASSCAL)Eros WindhoekNamibia

Personalised recommendations