The Wetland Book pp 1155-1158 | Cite as

Managing Wetlands for Pollination

  • Robert J. McInnes
Reference work entry


Pollination is a fundamental process in plant biology whereby pollen is transferred from the anther (male part) to the stigma (female part) to facilitate fertilization and reproduction. Pollination is restricted to the flower bearing plants or angiosperms. Pollination can be mediated by abiotic and biotic factors. Approximately 87% of all flowering plants are pollinated by biotic vectors such as insects, birds, and mammals. The primary abiotic factor is pollination by the wind (known as anemophily). This form of pollination is common in many wetland grass species, numerous coniferous, and many deciduous trees. Some wetland and aquatic plants release and disperse their pollen directly into water and this becomes the vector for pollination, known as hydrophilous pollination.


Pollination Regulating service Plant reproduction 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.RM Wetlands and Environment LtdLittleworth, OxfordshireUK

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