Economics of Wetland Conservation Case Study: “Systemic Solutions” for Integrated Water Management

  • Mark EverardEmail author
  • Robert J. McInnes
Reference work entry


Unintended consequences arising from narrow consideration of outputs from water and environmental management technologies are of increasing concern, including, for example, climate-active gases and solid waste generated by increasing intensity of traditional wastewater treatment. Formerly overlooked environmental and financial costs, as well as social concerns along supply chains and local disruption due to vehicle movements, are also giving cause for concern. Broader consideration of inputs and outputs highlights the need for low-input solutions that optimize outcomes across multiple ecosystem services. These “systemic solutions” are defined as “…low-input technologies using natural processes to optimise benefits across the spectrum of ecosystem services and their beneficiaries.”


Ecosystem services constructed wetlands integrated constructed wetlands water quality biodiversity landscape fit life cycle costs wastewater treatment 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International Water Security Network, University of the West of EnglandBristolUK
  2. 2.RM Wetlands and Environment LtdLittleworth, OxfordshireUK

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