Body Image and Child Well-Being

  • Kristina Holmqvist Gattario
  • Ann Frisén
  • Eileen Anderson-Fye

Abstract

Body image is an increasingly important issue of child well-being around the world. Body image dissatisfaction and related disorders appear to be increasing globally for both females and males. This chapter describes what is known about body image development, body image dissatisfaction, and positive body image from psychological and anthropological literature. Gender is of core importance to issues of body image among children and adolescents; therefore, gender is a central concept in this work. In particular, girls and young women contend with powerful transnational media ideal images of thin bodies, while boys and young men are increasingly faced with muscular ideal images. While body image issues have traditionally been more pressing for females, the pressures on males appear to be intensifying worldwide. Societal influences, such as media, toys, peers, and parents, play a major role in children’s standards of beauty and body image development. Moreover, contexts of cultural change and upward mobility place young people at increased risk of body image disturbance. Finally, we outline the multiple domains in which more research on children and body image is direly needed.

Keywords

Body Image Eating Disorder Body Dissatisfaction Body Shame Body Image Concern 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. American Psychological Association, Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. (2010). Report of the APA task force on the sexualization of girls. Retrieved on October 28, 2011 from http://www.apa.org/pi/women/programs/girls/report-full.pdf
  2. Anderson-Fye, E. P. (2004). A “coca-cola” shape: Cultural change, body image, and eating disorders in San Andrés, Belize. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 28(4), 561–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson-Fye, E. P. (2009). Cross-cultural issues in body image among children and adolescents. In L. Smolak & J. K. Thompson (Eds.), Body image, eating disorders, and obesity in youth: Assessment, prevention, and treatment (2nd ed., pp. 144–174). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson-Fye, E. (2010). Body images in non-western cultures. In T. Cash & L. Smolak (Eds.) Body image: A handbook of theory, research, and clinical practice. New York/London: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  5. Anderson-Fye, E. (2012). Anthropological perspectives on human appearance and body image. In T. Cash (Ed.), The encyclopedia of body image and human appearance (pp. 15–22). London: Elsevier Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson-Fye, E. P., & Becker, A. E. (2003). Sociocultural aspects of eating disorders. In J. K. Thompson (Ed.), The handbook of eating disorders and obesity (pp. 565–589). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  7. Anschutz, D. J., & Engels, R. C. M. E. (2010). The effects of playing with thin dolls on body image and food intake in young girls. Sex Roles, 63(9–10), 621–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Avalos, L., Tylka, T. L., & Wood-Barcalow, N. (2005). The body appreciation scale: Development and psychometric evaluation. Body Image, 2, 285–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barker, E. T., & Galambos, N. L. (2003). Body dissatisfaction of adolescent girls and boys: Risk and resource factors. Journal of Early Adolescence, 23, 141–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barlett, C., Harris, R., Smith, S., & Bonds-Raacke, J. (2005). Action figures and men. Sex Roles, 53(11–12), 877–885.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bazzini, D., Curtin, L., Joslin, S., Regan, S., & Martz, D. (2010). Do animated disney characters portray and promote the beauty-goodness stereotype? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40(10), 2687–2709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bearman, S. K., Presnell, K., Martinez, E., & Stice, E. (2006). The skinny on body dissatisfaction: A longitudinal study of adolescent girls and boys. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35, 229–241. doi:10.1007/s10964-005-9010-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Becker, A. E. (1995). Body, self, and society: The view from Fiji. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  14. Becker, A. E. (2004). Television, disordered eating, and young women in Fiji: Negotiating body image and identity during rapid social change. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 28(4), 533–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Becker, A. E., Burwell, R. A., Gilman, S. E., Herzog, D. B., & Hamburg, P. (2002). Eating behaviours and attitudes following prolonged exposure to television among ethnic Fijian adolescent girls. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 180(6), 509–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Becker, A. E., Keel, P., Anderson-Fye, E. P., & Thomas, J. J. (2004). Genes and/or jeans?: Genetic and socio-cultural contributions to risk for eating disorders. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 23(3), 81–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Benedikt, R., Wertheim, E. H., & Love, A. (1998). Eating attitudes and weight-loss attempts in female adolescents and their mothers. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 27(1), 43–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Blond, A. (2008). Impacts of exposure to images of ideal bodies on male body dissatisfaction: A review. Body Image, 5, 244–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brewis, A. A., Wutich, A., Falletta-Cowden, A., & Rodriguez-Soto, I. (2011). Body norms and fat stigma in global perspective. Current Anthropology, 52(2), 269–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brumberg, J. J. (1998). The body project: An intimate history of American girls. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  21. Bukowski, W. M. (2003). Peer relationships. In W. M. Bukowski (Ed.), Well-being: Positive development across the life course (pp. 221–233). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  22. Cash, T. F. (2002). A “negative body image”: Evaluating epidemiological evidence. In F. T. Cash & T. Pruzinsky (Eds.), Body image. A handbook of theory, research, and clinical practice (pp. 269–276). New York/London: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  23. Cash, T. F. (2011). Cognitive-behavioral perspectives on body image. In T. F. Cash & L. Smolak (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of science, practice, and prevention (pp. 39–47). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  24. Clark, L., & Tiggemann, M. (2006). Appearance culture in nine- to 12-year-old girls: Media and peer influences on body dissatisfaction. Social Development, 15(4), 628–643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cole, T. J., Bellizzi, M. C., Flegal, K. M., & Dietz, W. H. (2000). Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. British Medical Journal, 320, 1240–1243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cole, T. J., Flegal, K. M., Nicholls, D., & Jackson, A. A. (2007). Body mass index cut offs to define thinness in children and adolescents: International survey. Retrieved on October 4, 2011 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.ezproxy.ub.gu.se/pmc/articles/PMC1934447/pdf/bmj-335-7612-res-00194-el.pdf?tool=pmcentrez
  27. Cramer, P., & Steinwert, T. (1998). Thin is good, fat is bad: How early does it begin? Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 19, 429–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Crandall, C. S., D’Anello, S., Sakalli, N., Lazarus, E., Wieczorkowska Nejtardt, G., & Feather, N. T. (2001). An attribution-value model of prejudice: Anti-fat attitudes in six nations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(1), 30–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Crowther, J. H., & Williams, N. M. (2011). Body image and bulimia nervosa. In T. F. Cash & L. Smolak (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of science, practice, and prevention (2nd ed., pp. 288–295). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  30. Davison, K. K., Markey, C. N., & Birch, L. L. (2000). Etiology of body dissatisfaction and weight concerns among 5-year-old girls. Appetite, 35(2), 143–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Delinsky, S. S. (2011). Body image and anorexia nervosa. In T. F. Cash & L. Smolak (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of science, practice, and prevention (2nd ed., pp. 279–287). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  32. Dittmar, H. (2009). How do “body perfect” ideals in the media have a negative impact on body image and behaviors? Factors and processes related to self and identity. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 28, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dittmar, H., Halliwell, E., & Ive, S. (2006). Does Barbie make girls want to be thin? The effect of experimental exposure to images of dolls on the body image of 5- to 8-year-old girls. Developmental Psychology, 42(2), 283–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dohnt, H. K., & Tiggemann, M. (2006). The contribution of peer and media influences to the development of body satisfaction and self-esteem in young girls: A prospective study. Developmental Psychology, 42, 929–936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dohnt, H. K., & Tiggemann, M. (2008). Promoting positive body image in young girls: An evaluation of Shapesville. European Eating Disorders Review, 16, 222–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dunkley, T. L., Wertheim, E. H., & Paxton, S. J. (2001). Examination of a model of multiple sociocultural influences on adolescent girls’ body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint. Adolescence, 36(142), 265–279.Google Scholar
  37. Edmonds, A. (2010). Pretty modern. Durham, NC: Duke University.Google Scholar
  38. Eisenberg, M. E., Neumark-Sztainer, D., Haines, J., & Wall, M. (2006a). Weight-teasing and emotional well-being in adolescents: Longitudinal findings from project EAT. The Journal of Adolescent Health, 38, 675–683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Eisenberg, M. E., Neumark-Sztainer, D., & Paxton, S. (2006b). Five-year change in body satisfaction among adolescents. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 61, 521–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Frederick, D., Reynolds, T., Fales, M., & Garcia, J. R. (2012). Physical attractiveness: Dating, mating, and social interaction. In T. Cash (Ed.), The encyclopedia of body image and human appearance (pp. 15–22). London: Elsevier Press.Google Scholar
  41. Fredrickson, B. L., & Roberts, T.-A. (1997). Objectification theory: Toward understanding women’s lived experiences and mental health risks. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 173–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Friestad, C., & Rise, J. (2004). A longitudinal study of the relationship between body image, self-esteem and dieting among 15–21 year olds in Norway. European Eating Disorders Review, 12(4), 247–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Frisén, A., & Holmqvist, K. (2010). What characterizes early adolescents with a positive body image? A qualitative investigation of Swedish girls and boys. Body Image, 7, 205–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Frisén, A., Lunde, C., & Hwang, C. P. (2009). Peer victimization and its relationships with perceptions of body composition. Educational Studies, 3, 337–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fulkerson, J. A., McGuire, M. T., Neumark-Sztainer, D., Story, M., French, S. A., & Perry, C. L. (2002). Weight-related attitudes and behaviors of adolescent boys and girls who are encouraged to diet by their mothers. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 26(12), 1579–1587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Fulkerson, J. A., Story, M., Mellin, A., Leffert, N., Neumark-Sztainer, D., & French, S. A. (2006). Family dinner meal frequency and adolescent development: Relationships with developmental assets and high-risk behaviors. Journal of Adolescent Health, 39(3), 337–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gillis, J. S. (1982). Too tall, too small. Champaign, IL: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing.Google Scholar
  48. Gilman, S. (2008). Some weighty thoughts on dieting and epidemics. The Lancet, 371(9623), 1498–1499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Goodin, S. M., Van Denburg, A., Murnen, S. K., & Smolak, L. (2011). “Putting on” sexiness: A content analysis of the presence of sexualizing characteristics in girls’ clothing. Sex Roles, 65(1–2), 1–12. doi:10.1007/s11199-011-9966-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Grogan, S. (1999). Body image: Understanding body dissatisfaction in men, women and children. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  51. Gudmundsdottir, D. G. (2011). Positive psychology and public health. In R. Biswas-Diener (Ed.), Positive psychology as a social change (pp. 109–122). New York: Springer Press + Business Media.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Heinberg, L. H., & Thompson, J. K. (1995). Body image and televised images of thinness and attractiveness: A controlled laboratory investigation. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 14, 325–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Henwood, K., Gill, R., & McLean, C. (2002). The changing man. The Psychologist, 15, 182–186.Google Scholar
  54. Herbozo, S., & Thompson, J. K. (2006). Development and validation of the verbal commentary on physical appearance scale: Considering both positive and negative commentary. Body Image, 3, 335–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Herbozo, S., Tantleff-Dunn, S., Gokee-Larose, J., & Thompson, J. K. (2004). Beauty and thinness messages in children’s media: A content analysis. Eating Disorders, 12(1), 21–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hesse-Biber, S. N. (2007). The cult of thinness (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Hildebrandt, T., & Lai, J. (2011). Body image and appearance- and performance-enhancing drug use. In T. F. Cash & L. Smolak (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of science, practice, and prevention (2nd ed., pp. 314–320). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  58. Hoek, H. W. (2006). Incidence, prevalence and mortality of anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 19(4), 389–394. doi:10.1097/01.yco.0000228759.95237.78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Holmqvist, K., & Frisén, A. (2012). “I bet they aren’t that perfect in reality.” Appearance ideals viewed from the perspective of adolescents with a positive body image. Body Image, 9(3), 388–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Irving, L. M. (1990). Mirror images: Effects of the standard of beauty and the self- and body-esteem of women exhibiting varying levels of bulimic symptoms. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 9, 230–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jones, D. C. (2001). Social comparison and body image: Attractiveness comparisons to models and peers among adolescent girls and boys. Sex Roles, 45, 645–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Jones, D. C. (2004). Body image among adolescent girls and boys: A longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 40, 823–835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Jones, D. C. (2011). Interpersonal and familial influences on the development of body image. In T. F. Cash & L. Smolak (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of science, practice, and prevention (2nd ed., pp. 110–118). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  64. Jones, D. C., & Crawford, J. K. (2006). The peer appearance culture during adolescence: Gender and body mass variations. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35(2), 257–269. doi:10.1007/s10964-005-9006-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Jones, D. C., & Newman, J. B. (2009). Early adolescent adjustment and critical evaluations by self and other: The prospective impact of body image dissatisfaction and peer appearance teasing on global self-esteem. European Journal of Developmental Science, 3(1), 17–26.Google Scholar
  66. Jones, D. C., Vigfusdottir, T. H., & Lee, Y. (2004). Body image and the appearance culture among adolescent girls and boys: An examination of friend conversations, peer criticism, appearance magazines, and the internalization of appearance ideals. Journal of Adolescent Research, 19(3), 323–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kawamura, K. (2012). Body image among Asian Americans. In T. Cash (Ed.), The encyclopedia of body image and human appearance (pp. 95–102). London: Elsevier Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Keel, P. K., Heatherton, T. F., Harnden, J. L., & Hornig, C. D. (1997). Mothers, fathers, and daughters: Dieting and disordered eating. Eating Disorders, 5(3), 216–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Keery, H., Boutelle, K., van den Berg, P., & Thompson, J. K. (2005). The impact of appearance-related teasing by family members. Journal of Adolescent Health, 37(2), 120–127. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2004.08.015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Keery, H., Eisenberg, M. E., Boutelle, K., Neumark-Sztainer, D., & Story, M. (2006). Relationships between maternal and adolescent weight-related behaviors and concerns: The role of perception. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 61(1), 105–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kichler, J. C., & Crowther, J. H. (2001). The effects of maternal modeling and negative familial communication on women’s eating attitudes and body image. Behavior Therapy, 32(3), 443–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kostanski, M., Fisher, A., & Gullone, E. (2004). Current conceptualisation of body image dissatisfaction: Have we got it wrong? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 1317–1325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kurtines, W. M., Ferrer-Wreder, L., Berman, S. L., Cass Lorente, C., Silverman, W. K., & Montgomery, M. J. (2008). Promoting positive youth development: New directions in developmental theory, methods, and research. Journal of Adolescent Research, 23, 233–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. LaFlesh, T. (2012). Hair styling and coloring. In T. Cash (Ed.), The encyclopedia of body image and human appearance (pp. 490–498). London: Elsevier Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lee, S. (2004). Engaging culture: An overdue task for eating disorders research. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 28(4), 617–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Levine, M. P., & Smolak, L. (2002). Body image development in adolescence. In T. F. Cash & T. Pruzinsky (Eds.), Body image. A handbook of theory, research, and clinical practice (pp. 74–82). New York/London: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  77. Levine, M., & Smolak, L. (2010). Cultural influences on body image and the eating disorders. In W. S. Agras (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of eating disorders (pp. 223–246). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  78. Lindberg, S. M., Hyde, J. S., & McKinley, N. M. (2006). A measure of objectified body consciousness for preadolescent and adolescent youth. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 30, 65–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lindberg, S. M., Grabe, S., & Hyde, J. S. (2007). Gender, pubertal development, and peer sexual harassment predict objectified body consciousness in early adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 17, 723–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. López, I., Gonzalez, A. N., & Ho, A. (2012). Skin color. In T. Cash (Ed.), The encyclopedia of body image and human appearance (pp. 730–737). London: Elsevier Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lowes, J., & Tiggemann, M. (2003). Body dissatisfaction, dieting awareness and the impact of parental influence in young children. British Journal of Health Psychology, 8(2), 135–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lunde, C., & Frisén, A. (2011). On being victimized by peers in the advent of adolescence: Prospective relationships to objectified body consciousness. Body Image, 8, 309–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Lunde, C., Frisén, A., & Hwang, P. (2006). Is peer victimization related to body esteem in early adolescent boys and girls? Body Image, 3(1), 25–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Lunde, C., Frisén, A., & Hwang, C. P. (2007). Ten-year-old girls’ and boys’ body composition and peer victimization experiences: Prospective associations with body satisfaction. Body Image, 4, 11–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. McCabe, M. P., & Ricciardelli, L. A. (2004a). A longitudinal study of pubertal timing and extreme body change behaviors among adolescent boys and girls. Adolescence, 39, 145–166.Google Scholar
  86. McCabe, M. P., & Ricciardelli, L. A. (2004b). Body image dissatisfaction among males across the lifespan: A review of past literature. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 56, 675–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. McConnell, C. (2001). An object to herself: The relationship between girls and their bodies. Dissertation Abstracts International, 61(8B), p. 4416.Google Scholar
  88. McKinley, N. M. (1999). Women and objectified body consciousness: Mothers’ and daughters’ body experience in cultural, developmental, and familial context. Developmental Psychology, 35(3), 760–769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. McKinley, N. M., & Hyde, J. S. (1996). The objectified body consciousness scale: Development and validation. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20, 181–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. McVey, G. L., Kirsh, G., Maker, D., Walker, K. S., Mullane, J., Laliberte, M., Ellis-Claypool, J., et al. (2010). Promoting positive body image among university students: A collaborative pilot study. Body Image, 7(3), 200–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Meesters, C., Muris, P., Hoefnagels, C., & van Gemert, M. (2007). Social and family correlates of eating problems and muscle preoccupation in young adolescents. Eating Behaviors, 8(1), 83–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Meland, E., Haugland, S., & Breidablik, H.-J. (2006). Body image and perceived health in adolescence. Health Education Research, 22, 342–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Mills, A., Osborn, B. & Neitz, E. [Illustrator] (2003). Shapesville. Carlsbad: Gürze Books.Google Scholar
  94. Murnen, S. K. (2011). Gender and body images. In T. F. Cash & L. Smolak (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of science, practice, and prevention (2nd ed., pp. 173–179). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  95. Neumark-Sztainer, D., Sherwood, N., Coller, T., & Hannan, P. J. (2000). Primary prevention of disordered eating among pre-adolescent girls: Feasibility and short-term impact of a community-based intervention. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 100, 1466–1473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Nichter, M. (2000). Fat talk: What girls and their parents say about dieting. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  97. Norton, K. I., Olds, T. S., Olive, S., & Dank, S. (1996). Ken and Barbie at life size. Sex Roles, 34(3–4), 287–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. O’Dea, J. A., & Yager, Z. (2011). School-based psychoeducational approaches to prevention. In T. F. Cash & L. Smolak (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of science, practice, and prevention (2nd ed., pp. 434–441). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  99. Orbach, S. (2009/2010). Bodies. New York: Picador.Google Scholar
  100. Paxton, S. J., Wertheim, E. H., Gibbons, K., Szmukler, G. I., Hillier, L., & Petrovich, J. L. (1991). Body image satisfaction, dieting beliefs, and weight loss behaviors in adolescent girls and boys. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 20(3), 361–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Phillips, K. A. (2011). Body image and body dysmorphic disorder. In T. F. Cash & L. Smolak (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of science, practice, and prevention (2nd ed., pp. 305–313). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  102. Piran, N. (2010). A feminist perspective on risk factor research and on the prevention of eating disorders. Eating Disorders, 18, 183–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Piran, N., & Mafrici, N. (2011). Ecological and activism approaches to prevention. In T. F. Cash & L. Smolak (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of science, practice, and prevention (2nd ed., pp. 451–459). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  104. Pope, H. G., Jr., Olivardia, R., Gruber, A., & Borowiecki, J. (1999). Evolving ideals of male body image as seen through action toys. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 26(1), 65–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Pope, H. G., Phillips, K. A., & Olivardia, R. (2000). The Adonis complex. The secret crisis of male body obsession. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  106. Presnell, K., Bearman, S. K., & Stice, E. (2004). Risk factors for body dissatisfaction in adolescent boys and girls: A prospective study. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 36, 389–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Rauste-Von-Wright, M. (1989). Body image satisfaction in adolescent girls and boys: A longitudinal study. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 18, 71–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Ricciardelli, L. A. (2012). Body image development—adolescent boys. In T. Cash (Ed.), Encyclopedia of body image and human appearance (pp. 180–186). London: Elsevier Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Ricciardelli, L. A., & McCabe, M. P. (2001). Children’s body image concerns and eating disturbance: A review of the literature. Clinical Psychology Review, 21, 325–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Ricciardelli, L. A., & McCabe, M. P. (2011). Body image development in adolescent boys. In T. F. Cash & L. Smolak (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of science, practice, and prevention (2nd ed., pp. 85–92). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  111. Ricciardelli, L. A., McCabe, M. P., & Banfield, S. (2000). Body image and body change methods in adolescent boys: Role of parents, friends, and the media. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 49, 189–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Ricciardelli, L. A., McCabe, M. P., Mavoa, H., Fotu, K., Goundar, R., Schultz, J., Waga, G., et al. (2007). The pursuit of muscularity among adolescent boys in Fiji and Tonga. Body Image, 4(4), 361–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Richardson, S. M., Shanel, M., Paxton, S. J., & Thomson, J. S. (2009). Is BodyThink an efficacious body image and self-esteem program? A controlled evaluation with adolescents. Body Image, 6, 75–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Rieves, L., & Cash, T. F. (1996). Social developmental factors and women’s body-image attitudes. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 11(1), 63–78.Google Scholar
  115. Rodin, J., Silberstein, L., & Striegel-Moore, R. (1985). Women and weight: A normative discontent. In T. B. Sonderegger (Ed.), Psychology and gender. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  116. Rosenblum, G. D., & Lewis, M. (1999). The relations among body image, physical attractiveness, and body mass in adolescence. Child Development, 70, 50–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Saraceno, B. (2003). Caring for children and adolescents with mental disorders: Setting WHO directions. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  118. Seligman, M. E. P. (2002). Positive psychology, positive prevention, and positive therapy. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), The handbook of positive psychology (pp. 3–12). New York: Oxford Press.Google Scholar
  119. Silbereisen, R. K., & Kracke, B. (1993). Variation in maturational timing and adjustment in adolescence. In S. Jackson & H. Rodriguez-Tomé (Eds.), Adolescence and its social worlds (pp. 67–94). East Sussex: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  120. Slater, A., & Tiggemann, M. (2002). A test of objectification theory in adolescent girls. Sex Roles, 46(9/10), 343–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Smolak, L. (2011). Body image development in childhood. In T. F. Cash & L. Smolak (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of science, practice, and prevention (2nd ed., pp. 67–75). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  122. Smolak, L., & Levine, M. P. (2001). Body image in children. In K. Thompson & L. Smolak (Eds.), Body image, eating disorders, and obesity in youth. Assessment, prevention, and treatment (pp. 41–66). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Smolak, L., & Stein, J. A. (2006). The relationship of drive for muscularity to sociocultural factors, self-esteem, physical attributes gender role, and social comparison in middle school boys. Body Image, 3(2), 121–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Smolak, L., & Thompson, J. K. (Eds.). (2009). Body image, eating disorders, and obesity in youth: Assessment, prevention, and treatment (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.Google Scholar
  125. Smolak, L., Levine, M. P., & Thompson, J. K. (2001). The use of the sociocultural attitudes towards appearance questionnaire with middle school boys and girls. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 29(2), 216–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Stice, E. (2001). A prospective test of the dual-pathway model of bulimic pathology: Mediating effects of dieting and negative affect. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 124–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Stice, E., & Shaw, H. E. (1994). Adverse effects of the media portrayed thin-ideal on women and linkages to bulimic symptomatology. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 13, 288–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Stice, E., & Whitenton, K. (2002). Risk factors for body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls: A longitudinal investigation. Developmental Psychology, 38, 669–678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Stice, E., Hayward, C., Cameron, R. P., Killen, J. D., & Taylor, C. B. (2000). Body-image and eating disturbances predict onset of depression among female adolescents: A longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109(3), 438–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Stormer, S. M., & Thompson, J. K. (1996). Explanations of body image disturbance: A test of maturational status, negative verbal commentary, social comparison, and socio-cultural hypotheses. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 19, 193–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Striegel-Moore, R. H., & Franko, D. L. (2002). Body image issues among girls and women. In T. F. Cash & T. Pruzinsky (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of theory, research, and clinical practice (pp. 183–191). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  132. Striegel-Moore, R. H., McMahon, R. P., Biro, F. M., Schreiber, G., Crawford, P. B., & Voorhees, C. (2001). Exploring the relationship between timing of menarche and eating disorder symptoms in black and white adolescent girls. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 30, 421–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Strong, K., & Huon, G. F. (1998). An evaluation of a structural model for studies of the initiation of dieting among adolescent girls. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 44(3–4), 315–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Swami, V. (2009). Body appreciation, media influence, and weight status predict consideration of cosmetic surgery among female undergraduates. Body Image, 6, 315–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Swami, V., & Chamorro-Premuzic, T. (2008). Factor structure of the body appreciation scale among Malaysian women. Body Image, 5(4), 409–413. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2008.04.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Swami, V., Hadji-Michael, M., & Furnham, A. (2008a). Personality and individual difference correlates of positive body image. Body Image, 5, 322–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Swami, V., Stieger, S., Haubner, T., & Voracek, M. (2008b). German translation and psychometric evaluation of the body appreciation scale. Body Image, 5, 122–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Swami, V., Airs, N., Chouhan, B., Leon, M. A. P., & Towell, T. (2009). Are there ethnic differences in positive body image among female British undergraduates? European Psychologist, 14, 288–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. The McKnight Investigators. (2003). Risk factors for the onset of eating disorders in adolescent girls: Results of the McKnight longitudinal risk factor study. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(2), 248–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Thomas, K., Ricciardelli, L. A., & Williams, R. J. (2000). Gender traits and self-concepts as indicators of problem eating and body dissatisfaction among children. Sex Roles, 43, 441–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Thompson, B. W. (1992). “A way outa no way”: Eating problems among African American, Latina, and white women. Gender and Society, 6(4), 546–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Thompson, B. W. (1994). A hunger so wide and so deep: American women speak out on eating problems. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  143. Thompson, J. K., Heinberg, L. J., Altabe, M., & Tantleff-Dunn, S. (1999). Exacting beauty. Theory, assessment, and treatment of body image disturbance. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Tiggemann, M. (2004). Body image across the adult life span: Stability and change. Body Image, 1, 29–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Tiggemann, M. (2011). Sociocultural perspectives on human appearance and body image. In T. F. Cash & L. Smolak (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of science, practice, and prevention (2nd ed., pp. 12–19). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  146. Tiggemann, M., & Miller, J. (2010). The internet and adolescent girls’ weight satisfaction and drive for thinness. Sex Roles, 1–2, 79–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Turkel, A. R. (1998). All about Barbie: Distortions of a transitional object. The Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry, 26(1), 165–177.Google Scholar
  148. Tylka, T. L. (2011). Positive psychology perspectives on body image. In T. F. Cash & L. Smolak (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of science, practice, and prevention (2nd ed., pp. 56–64). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  149. Van den Berg, P. A., Mond, J., Eisenberg, M., Ackard, D., & Neumark-Sztainer, D. (2010). The link between body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in adolescents: Similarities across gender, age, weight status, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Journal of Adolescent Health, 47(3), 290–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Vincent, M. A., & McCabe, M. P. (2000). Gender differences among adolescents in family, and peer influences on body dissatisfaction, weight loss, and binge eating behaviors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29(2), 205–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Wade, T. D., Davidson, S., & O’Dea, J. A. (2003). A preliminary controlled evaluation of a school-based media literacy and self-esteem program for reducing eating disorder risk factors. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 33, 371–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Wertheim, E. H. & Paxton, S. J. (2012). Body image development—Adolescent girls. In, T. Cash (Eds.), Encyclopedia of body image and human appearance (pp. 187–193). London: Elsevier Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Wertheim, E. H., Paxton, S. J., Schutz, H. K., & Muir, S. L. (1997). Why do adolescent girls watch their weight? An interview study examining sociocultural pressures to be thin. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 42(4), 345–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Wertheim, E. H., Martin, G., Prior, M., Sanson, A., & Smart, D. (2002). Parent influences in the transmission of eating and weight related values and behaviors. Eating Disorders, 10(4), 321–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Wertheim, E. H., Paxton, S. J., & Blaney, S. (2009). Body image in girls. In L. Smolak & J. K. Thompson (Eds.), Body image, eating disorders, and obesity in youth (2nd ed., pp. 47–76). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Wood-Barcalow, N. L., Tylka, T. L., & Augustus-Horvath, C. L. (2010). “But I like my body”: Positive body image characteristics and a holistic model for young-adult women. Body Image, 7, 106–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Wykes, M., & Gunter, B. (2005). The media & body image. London: Sage.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kristina Holmqvist Gattario
    • 1
  • Ann Frisén
    • 1
  • Eileen Anderson-Fye
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of GothenburgGothenburgSweden
  2. 2.Department of AnthropologyCase Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations