Encyclopedia of Snow, Ice and Glaciers

2011 Edition
| Editors: Vijay P. Singh, Pratap Singh, Umesh K. Haritashya

Congelation Ice

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2642-2_75


Congelation ice forms as water freezes on the bottom of the ice cover, and the latent heat of crystallization is conducted upward through the ice and snow to the atmosphere. Formation of sea ice on the bottom of an established sea ice cover in the form of platelets, which coalesces to form solid ice, is also represented by congelation ice. Its growth rate is proportional to the rate at which energy is transferred from the bottom surface of the ice layer to the air above. Congelation ice is often referred to as black ice because it has a high optical depth that permits significant light transmission to the underlying water. It forms as a stable ice sheet with a smooth bottom surface.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre of Studies in Resources EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology BombayMumbaiIndia