Birdshot Chorioretinopathy

  • Arash Maleki
  • Muhammad Sohail Halim
  • Quan Dong NguyenEmail author
Living reference work entry


Birdshot chorioretinopathy (BSCR) is a chronic, progressive, bilateral, and often symmetric autoimmune posterior uveitis, with characteristic round, creamy-colored chorioretinal lesions. It can affect the retina, choroid, and optic nerve. Multimodal imaging is very useful in supporting the diagnosis and is especially helpful in monitoring disease activity and response to treatment. The mainstay treatment of BSCR is steroid-sparing immunomodulatory therapy (IMT), often with combination of different immunomodulating agents.

Suggested Reading

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Copyright information

© Springer (India) Pvt. Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arash Maleki
    • 1
    • 2
  • Muhammad Sohail Halim
    • 1
  • Quan Dong Nguyen
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology, Byers Eye InstituteStanford UniversityPalo AltoUSA
  2. 2.Noor Ophthalmology Research CenterNoor Eye HospitalTehranIran

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