Cryptococcus is an infective fungal disease presenting in immunocompromised individuals, especially those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. While the most common manifestation of the disease is papilledema due to involvement of the central nervous system, it can occasionally result in intraocular spread causing vitritis and endophthalmitis. One-third to one-half of patients with cryptococcal meningitis exhibit neuro-ophthalmic manifestations and vision loss is common. As the ophthalmologist might be the first physician to see these patients, he/she should be familiar with this entity. Prompt diagnosis and referral for effective therapy is mandatory. Despite progress in the rolling out antiretroviral therapy, cryptococcal meningitis is still a leading killer of AIDS patients worldwide. In the index chapter, ocular manifestations of Cryptococcus infection have been highlighted.
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