Collectin is a very unique protein, which has two characteristic domains: a collagen-like sequence and carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). It is considered as a receptor recognizing a pathogen with associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that play an important role in innate immunity. Recently, it was demonstrated that several collectins can not only activate the complement pathway but are also involved in various biological functions different from a host defense. In this chapter, we focus on “complement activation-related collectins,” consisting of mannan-binding lectin (MBL), complement 1q (C1q), collectin kidney 1 (CL-K1), and collectin placenta 1 (CL-P1), and summarize and discuss various new aspects of their functions.
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