CIRP Encyclopedia of Production Engineering

2019 Edition
| Editors: Sami Chatti, Luc Laperrière, Gunther Reinhart, Tullio Tolio


  • Robert SchmittEmail author
Reference work entry


Straightness is a form tolerance that prescribes the largest possible deviation of a line from its geometrical ideal form (Pfeifer and Schmitt 2010). For an axis, the straightness tolerance specifies that the derived median line must lie within some cylindrical zone whose diameter is the specified tolerance. For the line elements of a feature, the straightness tolerance specifies that each line element must lie in a zone bounded by two parallel lines that are separated by the specified tolerance and that are in the cutting plane defining the line element.

Theory and Application

Figure 1 shows an example for a tolerance of spatial straightness. The reference arrow is shown in the extension of the dimension line of the largest cylinder, and therefore the tolerance of straightness is related to the axis of this cylinder. The real axis must be over the whole length within the cylinder with a diameter of the tolerance value, in the example shown 0.06 mm.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. DIN EN ISO 1101 (2014) Geometrical product specifications (GPS): geometrical tolerancing – tolerances of form, orientation, location and run-out. Beuth, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  2. Pfeifer T, Schmitt R (2010) Fertigungsmesstechnik [Metrology in production], 3rd edn. Oldenbourg, München (in German)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© CIRP 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory for Machine Tools and Production Engineering (WZL)RWTH Aachen UniversityAachenGermany

Section editors and affiliations

  • Eric Lutters
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Twente, Faculty of Engineering Technology Laboratory of Design, Production and ManagementEnschedeThe Netherlands