CIRP Encyclopedia of Production Engineering

2019 Edition
| Editors: Sami Chatti, Luc Laperrière, Gunther Reinhart, Tullio Tolio

Sputtering

  • Günter BräuerEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-53120-4_16780

Definition

Coating technologies are used to modify mechanical, chemical, electrical, or optical properties of surfaces. A distinction can be made between “thick” and “thin” film technology. “Thin films” in general have thicknesses less than 10 μm, but the demarcation line is not so clear-cut.

The most important processes for thin-film formation are physical vapor deposition (PVD) processes. Basic PVD processes are evaporation and sputtering. The coating material is solid; thin films are deposited by solid-liquid-vapor-solid phase transition in the case of evaporation and solid-vapor-solid transition in the case of sputtering.

Figures 1 and 2show the principles of thermal and electron beam evaporation. Materials with a low melting point (many metals) are evaporated from graphite boats by resistive heating. For materials with a higher melting point (e.g., metal oxides), electron beam evaporation is commonly used. Evaporation is a fast process with deposition rates of 500–5000 nm/s for...
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Bräuer G, Szyszka B, Vergöhl M, Bandorf R (2010) Magnetron sputtering – milestones of 30 years. Vacuum 84(12):1354–1359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Jäger S, Szyszka B, Szczyrbowski J, Bräuer G (1996) Comparison of transparent conductive oxide thin films prepared by AC and DC reactive magnetron sputtering. Surf Coat Technol 98(1–3):1304–1314Google Scholar
  3. Kouznetsov V, Macák K, Schneider JM, Helmersson U, Petrov I (1999) A novel pulsed magnetron sputter technique utilizing very high target power densities. Surf Coat Technol 122(2–3):290–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. McKelvey HE (1982) Magnetron cathode sputtering apparatus. US patent 4,356,073 AGoogle Scholar
  5. Oechsner H (1975) Sputtering – a review of some recent experimental and theoretical aspects. Appl Phys 8(3):185–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Scholl RA (1993) A new method of handling arcs and reducing particulates in DC plasma processing. In: 36th annual technical conference proceedings of the society of vacuum coaters, pp 405–408Google Scholar
  7. Sigmund P (1969) Theory of sputtering. I. Sputtering yield of amorphous and polycrystalline targets. Phys Rev 184(2):383–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Wright M, Beardow T (1986) Design advances and applications of the rotatable cylindrical magnetron. J Vac Sci Technol A 4(3):388–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© CIRP 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fraunhofer-Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films ISTBraunschweigGermany

Section editors and affiliations

  • Ludger Overmeyer
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Transport- und AutomatisierungstechnikGottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität HannoverGarbsenDeutschland