CIRP Encyclopedia of Production Engineering

2019 Edition
| Editors: Sami Chatti, Luc Laperrière, Gunther Reinhart, Tullio Tolio

Geometrical Product Specification

  • Vijay SrinivasanEmail author
Reference work entry



There are two definitions for the phrase “geometrical product specifications” (GPS). In a narrower sense, it refers to geometrical dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) and surface texture for specifying allowable geometric variations in a manufactured product. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has adopted a broader definition of GPS that includes specifications as well as verification (using measurements) of allowable geometric variations in a product. This entry adopts the broader ISO definition. In this context, the acronym GPS should not be confused with its more popular usage as the “global positioning system.”

Theory and Applications


The phrase “geometrical product specifications” was formally introduced in 1996, when a new ISO Technical Committee 213 (ISO/TC 213) titled “Dimensional and geometrical product...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Dantan JY, Ballu A, Mathieu L (2008) Geometrical product specifications – model for product life cycle. Comput Aided Des 40:493–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Feeney AB, Frechette S, Srinivasan V (2014) A portrait of an ISO STEP tolerancing standard as an enabler of smart manufacturing systems. ASME J Comput Inf Sci Eng 15(2)Google Scholar
  3. ISO (2010) ISO 14405–1:2010 Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) – dimensional tolerancing – part 1: linear sizes. International Organization for Standardization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  4. ISO (2012) ISO 1101:2012 Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) – geometrical tolerancing – tolerances of form, orientation, location and run-out. International Organization for Standardization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  5. ISO (2014) ISO 10303-242:2014 Industrial automation systems and integration – product data representation and exchange – part 242: application protocol: managed model-based 3D engineering. International Organization for Standardization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  6. Nielsen HS (2012) The ISO geometrical product specifications handbook – find your way in GPS. International Organization for Standardization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  7. Nielsen HS (2013) Recent developments in International Organization for Standardization geometrical product specification standards and strategic plans for future work. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part B J Eng Manuf 227(5):643–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Requicha AAG (1983) Toward a theory of geometric tolerancing. Int J Robot Res 2(4):45–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. GPS Roadmap (2015) Dimensional and geometrical product specifications and verification, Roadmap. Accessed 26 Mar 2015
  10. Srinivasan V (2001) An integrated view of geometrical product specification and verification. In: Proceedings of the 7th CIRP seminar on computer aided tolerancing, 24–25 Apr 2001, Cachan, pp 7–17Google Scholar
  11. Srinivasan V (2004) Theory of dimensioning: an introduction to parameterizing geometric models. Marcel Dekker, New YorkzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. Srinivasan V (2007) Computational metrology for the design and manufacture of product geometry: a classification and synthesis. ASME J Comput Inf Sci Eng 7(1):3–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© CIRP 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Systems Integration Division, Engineering LaboratoryNational Institute of Standards and TechnologyGaithersburgUSA