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Inhomogeneity in Winter Precipitation Measurements

  • Daqing YangEmail author
  • Antonina Simonenko
  • Xiaobo He
Living reference work entry
Part of the Ecohydrology book series (ECOH)

Abstract

Analyses of the long-term (1991–2010) intercomparison data quantify the consistency in winter precipitation observations by six identical Tretyakov gauges at the Valdai research station in Russia. Relative to the standard Tretyakov gauge, the mean catch ratios vary from 97% to 106% for dry snow, 94–104% for wet snow, 87–109% for blowing snow, 96–103% for mixed precipitation, to 98–101% for winter rain. The differences between the highest and lowest mean catches are about 10–11% for snow, 7% for mixed precipitation, and 3% for rain. On average, this difference is about 0.2 mm over the 12-h observation period. The catch difference for blowing snow is much higher, up to 22%, or average of 0.6 mm per observation. Comparisons of 12-h observations show a better consistency in gauge performance for the low snowfall events, and a large variation in gauge catch for the high snowfall cases. The differences in 12-h snow catches are mostly less than 2 mm among the 6 gauges. The difference in the 12-h observations is less than 1% for rain and 4% for mixed precipitation. Close linear relationships exist between the 12-h gauge observations for all precipitation types. The maximum differences in gauge snow catches increase very weakly with the wind speed, and higher differences are associated with the warmer temperatures from –5 °C to 0 °C. There is, however, no significant relationship between the max catch difference and mean wind speed or temperature over the 12-h period.

Keyword

Tretyakov gauge Valdai station Precipitation Measurement Consistency 

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Copyright information

© Crown 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Watershed Hydrology and Ecology Research Division, Water Science and TechnologyEnvironment and Climate Change CanadaVictoriaCanada
  2. 2.State Hydrologic InstituteSt. PetersburgRussia
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory of Cryosphere SciencesCold and Arid Regions Environment and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of SciencesLanzhouChina

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