Encyclopedia of Parasitology

2016 Edition
| Editors: Heinz Mehlhorn

Stomoxys calcitrans: Transmission Activity

  • Heinz MehlhornEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-43978-4_4354
This stable fly, which visits many hosts at short intervals, has been shown to contain a large amount of agents of diseases, which – depending on their amount – might be transmitted (Table 1). In most cases, transmission probably occurs mechanically by contamination of the mouthparts but surely also by a process of regurgitation.
Stomoxys calcitrans: Transmission Activity, Table 1

Stomoxys calcitrans and its activity as vector of agents of diseases (mostly as mechanical transmission)


Name of disease

Agents of disease

Symptoms of disease

Geographic distribution


Swamp fever


Anemia, fever, edemas



Pig plaque


Fever, skin lesions, cramps, death


Birds, humans, many animals besides horses

West Nile fever

Flavivirus (Arboviridae)

Fever, death


Ruminants, humans, rodents

Rift Valley fever

Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae)

Fever, diarrhea, bloody nose slime, jaundice, death

Africa, Middle East

Ruminants (cattle, sheep, goats)

Lumpy skin disease

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Further Readings

  1. Baldachino F et al (2013) Transmission of pathogens by Stomoxys flies, a review. doi:10.1051/parasite/2013026Google Scholar
  2. Biswas S et al (2014) Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) – a reemerging concern in livestock. doi:10.1080/01652176. 2013.799301Google Scholar
  3. Bolfa P et al (2013) Interstitial lung disease associated with equine infections anemia virus infection in horses. Vet Res 44:113–118PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. de Castro BG et al (2013) Occurrence of Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli in Stomoxys calcitrans. Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 22:318–321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Johnson G et al (2010) Detection of West Nile virus in stable flies. J Med Entomol 47:1205–1211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für ZoomorphologieZellbiologie und Parasitologie, Heinrich-Heine-UniversitätDüsseldorfGermany