Reference work entry
After the spreading of the blue tongue virus epidemics (serotype 8) in most European countries in the years 2006–2009 being transmitted by midges (e.g., Culicoides obsoletus and other Culicoides species) and killing ~4 % of infected cattle, up to 80 % of sheep in 18 countries in Central Europe were hit in the years 2011 and 2012 by the occurrence of the so-called Schmallenberg virus. This virus was named by the German Central Institute for Animal Health after a small town in western Germany and identified as a member of the Simbu serogroup of the so-called Orthobunya viruses. This virus introduced only mild symptoms in adult cattle, sheep, and goats, but led to severe damages in fetuses and/or newborn animals of these ruminants. Although there was no risk for human health, severe losses in farm animals led to a significantly enhanced observation and establishment of similar methods like the fight against the blue tongue virusepidemics. These methods of isolation of infected animals...
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