Greek – syn = together, gamos = fusion. Latin – trachea = trachea, breathing tube. English – grape worm.
Worldwide in many bird and mammal species; in cases of farmed birds, often high prevalence rates have been observed.
Syngamus trachea (Fig. 1). The adults of this so-called red tracheal worm measure 8 mm (males) in length and 20 mm (females), respectively, which live in permanent copulation attached at the tracheal wall, thus offering a Y-shaped aspect. Both sexes suck constantly blood at different places and thus appear reddish in shape. The females excrete the thick-walled 70–100 μm × 45–50 μm-sized eggs in an unembryonated stage (containing a morula of about 16 cells). The egg shell is characterized by thickenings at both poles (Fig. 1). The larva 3 is formed inside the egg shell within 1–2 weeks. If snails, earthworms, insects, or their larvae...