Encyclopedia of Parasitology

2016 Edition
| Editors: Heinz Mehlhorn

Malaria Relapse

  • Miles B. MarkusEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-43978-4_3495

General Information

It is conventionally assumed that malarial relapse is caused by hypnozoites, via schizogony in hepatocytes. In regard to malaria (as opposed to other diseases), the word “relapse” is nowadays used to refer specifically to renewed parasitemia and illness that originates from presumed hypnozoites in the liver.

A valid alternative term for “hypnozoite” is “dormozoite”. However, it is the former word that has become ubiquitous in the literature; and consequently, use of the name “hypnozoite” is preferable.

The apicomplexan hypnozoite was discovered by Mehlhorn and Markus (1976), when electron microscopy revealed the sporozoite-like nature of a known and apparently dormant extraintestinal stage of Cystoisospora (synonym: Isospora), an organism closely related to Plasmodium. It was a few years later that plasmodial hypnozoites were recognized for the first time, in the laboratory of W. A. Krotoski in New Orleans, USA. These were hypnozoites of the relapsing simian...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Lover AA, Coker RJ (2014) Re-assessing the relationship between sporozoite dose and incubation period in Plasmodium vivax malaria: a systematic re-analysis. Parasitology 141:859–868Google Scholar
  2. Markus MB (2015) Do hypnozoites cause relapse in malaria? Trends Parasitol 31:239–245Google Scholar
  3. Markus MB (2016) Mouse-based research on quiescent primate malaria parasites. Trends Parasitol 32:271–273Google Scholar
  4. Mehlhorn H, Markus MB (1976) Electron microscopy of stages of Isospora felis of the cat in the mesenteric lymph node of the mouse. Z Parasitenkd 51:15–24Google Scholar
  5. Richter J, Franken G, Holtfreter MC et al. (2016) Clinical implications of a gradual dormancy concept in malaria. Parasitol Res 115:2139–2148Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of AP & ES; and Wits Research Institute for MalariaUniversity of the WitwatersrandJohannesburgSouth Africa