Encyclopedia of Parasitology

2016 Edition
| Editors: Heinz Mehlhorn

Trichomonas vaginalis

  • Heinz MehlhornEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-43978-4_3259


Greek: trichos = thin hair; monas = simple organism. Latin: vagina = female genital opening

Geographic Distribution/Epidemiology

Worldwide, around 500 million people are infected, often at the same time with fungi (Candida) and/or bacteria (e.g., Streptococcus, Enterococcus species); infection rates are especially high in cases of unprotected sexual intercourse with often changing partners.

Morphology/Life Cycle

T. vaginalis (Figs. 1, 2 and 3) lives in the fluids of the vagina and cervix of females and of the preputium, prostate glands, and urethra of males and belongs to the group of flagellate protozoans. It appears pear shaped and measures about 10–25 μm in length and is characterized by four free flagella starting at the apical pole and a recurrent flagellum which is attached at the lateral side. Furthermore, a so-called axostyle structure stretches from the anterior pole (where it surrounds the nucleus) until the very end of the cell, where it leads to the appearance of a...
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Further Reading

  1. Harp DF, Chowdhury I (2011) Trichomoniasis; evaluation to execution. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 157:3–9PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Hirt RP (2013) Trichomonas vaginalis virulence factors: an integrative overview. Sex Transm Infect 89:439–443PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hobbs MM, Sena AC (2013) Modern diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection. Sex Transm Infect 89:434–438PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Schwebke JR, Burgess D (2004) Trichomoniasis. Clin Microbiol Rev 17:794–803PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für Zoomorphologie, Zellbiologie und Parasitologie, Heinrich-Heine-UniversitätDüsseldorfGermany