Reference work entry
This species occurs in the blood vessels of the liver, mesenteries, and small intestine of voles and muskrats in the Northern region of the USA and Canada. As well other small mammals such as deer mice, house mice, rabbits, etc. may be infected. The males measure 2–6 mm in length and possess 15–36 testes located at the anterior end of the hind body. The females are slender and measure 1.5–5.5 mm in length. Intermediate hosts are snails of the genera Stagnicola and Physa, which discharge finally large numbers of furcated cercariae, which penetrate soon into their final hosts. The relationship of this species to others of this group is not very close, as can be seen in the cladogramm of Fig. 1.
- Olsen OW (1974) Animal parasites. Their life cycles and ecology. University Park Press, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
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