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Fluid and Electrolyte Balance in Infants and Children

  • Joseph ChukwuEmail author
  • Eleanor J. Molloy
Reference work entry

Abstract

Fluids and electrolyte management in infants and children is continuously evolving as the understanding of fluid and electrolyte requirements is progressing. Postnatal transition marked by predictable changes in body water including contraction of extracellular volume and insensible fluid loss, primarily across the skin barrier. Knowledge of the fluid and electrolyte composition and maintenance of homeostasis at different stages of infancy and childhood are essential to the effective management of fluid and electrolyte deficit in infants and children undergoing surgery. Fluid therapy in infants in the intensive care unit may be guided using three clinical indicators: change in body weight, serum sodium concentration, and urine output.

Keywords

Fluid balance Electrolyte balance Acid-base balance Dehydration Osmolality Perioperative management 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinical Research Unit, National Children’s Research CentreOur Lady’s Children’s HospitalDublinIreland
  2. 2.Department of Neonatology, PaediatricsNational Maternity HospitalDublinIreland
  3. 3.UCD School of Medicine and Medical SciencesUniversity College DublinDublinIreland
  4. 4.NeonatologyOur Lady’s Children’s HospitalDublinIreland
  5. 5.PaediatricsRoyal College of Surgeons in IrelandDublinIreland
  6. 6.Discipline of Paediatrics, Trinity CollegeThe University of DublinDublinIreland
  7. 7.Tallaght Hospital and Coombe Women’s and Infants University HospitalDublinIreland

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