Encyclopedia of Immunotoxicology

2016 Edition
| Editors: Hans-Werner Vohr

Local Lymph Node Assay

  • Rebecca J. DearmanEmail author
  • Ian Kimber
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-54596-2_898

Short Description

The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) was developed initially as a method for the identification of chemicals that have the potential to cause skin sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis. Since its first description the LLNA has been the subject of detailed assessments in the context of national and international collaborative trials and of extensive comparisons with both other predictive test methods and human data. The origins, development, evaluation, and eventual validation of the LLNA have recently been described comprehensively elsewhere (Kimber et al. 2002a).

In contrast to guinea pig tests, the LLNA identifies contact allergens as a function of events induced during the induction phase of skin sensitization – specifically the stimulation of proliferative responses in draining lymph nodes.


The LLNA is based on an appreciation of the events that characterize the induction phase of skin sensitization. Following topical exposure to a...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Basketter DA, Blaikie L, Dearman RJ et al (2000) Use of the local lymph node assay for the estimation of relative contact allergic potency. Cont Derm 42:344–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dearman RJ, Basketter DA, Kimber I (1999) Local lymph node assay: use in hazard and risk assessment. J Appl Toxicol 19:299–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Gerberick GF, Robinson MK, Ryan CA et al (2001) Contact allergenic potency: correlation of human and local lymph node assay data. Am J Cont Derm 12:156–161Google Scholar
  4. Gerberick GF, Ryan CA, Kimber I, Dearman RJ, Lea LJ, Basketter DA (2000) Local lymph node assay: validation assessment for regulatory purposes. Am J Cont Derm 11:3–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Kimber I, Basketter DA (1997) Contact sensitization: a new approach to risk assessment. Human Ecolog Risk Assess 3:385–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kimber I, Basketter DA, Gerberick GF, Dearman RJ (2002a) Allergic contact dermatitis. Int Immunopharmacol 2:201–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kimber I, Dearman RJ, Basketter DA, Ryan CA, Gerberick GF (2002b) The local lymph node assay: past, present and future. Cont Derm 4:315–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Syngenta Central Toxicology LaboratoryCheshireUK