Encyclopedia of Immunotoxicology

2016 Edition
| Editors: Hans-Werner Vohr

Cyclosporin A

  • Peter Ulrich
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-54596-2_336



Cyclosporin A (CsA), an undecapeptide, was isolated as a product of a fungus classified as Tolypocladium inflatum Gams and was shown to inhibit activation by specifically blocking the respective signal transduction pathway (Borel et al. 1976). These pharmacological properties have made CsA a widely used immunosuppressant for prevention of transplant rejection and for therapy of rheumatoid arthritis and diseases with autoimmune features like psoriasis. Rejection of transplanted organs is mediated by effector T cells, which have been activated via distinct pathways:
  • The direct pathway, in which alloreactive T cells recognize intact major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alloantigens expressed by donor antigen-presenting cells (APC) (seealso Alloreaction)

  • The indirect pathway, which involves allopeptides derived from processing and presentation of allogeneic MHC molecules by recipient APC

The role of both pathways in allograft rejection is currently...

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Novartis Pharma AG (NIBR), PCS - Biologics SafetyBaselSwitzerland