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Akute und posttraumatische Belastungsstörung

  • Hans-Peter Kapfhammer
Living reference work entry
Part of the Springer Reference Medizin book series (SRM)

Zusammenfassung

Ein Trauma ist ein äußeres Ereignis, das bei den Betroffenen das Gefühl einer überwältigenden Bedrohung und Katastrophe vermittelt und Todesangst, Panik, Ohnmacht und Hilflosigkeit auslöst. Eine akute Traumaexposition geht mit einer psychischen und psychosomatischen Erschütterung einher, von der sich aber in der Regel die meisten Menschen innerhalb absehbarer Zeit wieder gut erholen. Bei manchen traumatisierten Personen können in der Folge jedoch zahlreiche psychische Störungen auftreten. Die akute Belastungsstörung (ABS) und die posttraumatische Belastungsstörung (PTBS) stellen prägnanztypische Traumafolgestörungen dar, die sowohl im ICD- als auch im DSM-Klassifikationssystem gesondert thematisiert werden. Für die komplizierte Trauer existiert im DSM-5 kein eigener diagnostischer Status, jedoch wird die ICD-11 die Diagnose einer anhaltenden Trauer führen. Die extremen und meist entwicklungspsychopathologischen Traumatisierungen werden innerhalb des DSM-5 unter der PTBS subsumiert, in der künftigen ICD-11-Revision werden sie hingegen einen eigenständigen diagnostischen Status einnehmen. Die PTBS wird im DSM-5 mit der ABS und den Anpassungsstörungen neu unter den trauma- und stressbezogenen Störungen zusammengefasst. Die ICD-11 wird sich diesbezüglich analog verhalten. Die ABS deckt die ersten vier Wochen nach einer Traumaexposition ab, eine PTBS kann erst nach dieser Zeitspanne diagnostiziert werden. Beide zeichnen sich syndromal durch ein intrusives Wiedererleben der Traumaerfahrung, ein traumabezogenes Vermeidungsverhalten sowie durch eine autonome Hyperaktivität oder aber durch prominente dissoziative Symptome aus. Für eine differenzielle Behandlung existieren empirisch validierte psychotherapeutische und psychopharmakologische Ansätze. Die Verläufe von PTBS sind aber nach wie vor häufig chronisch und behindernd. Darum werden derzeit intensive Forschungsbestrebungen unternommen, um zu günstigeren Therapieoptionen zu gelangen.

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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Klinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapeutische MedizinMedizinische Universität GrazGrazÖsterreich

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