Chemical Composition of Sugar and Confectionery Products

Living reference work entry


This chapter is focused on chemistry of carbohydrates present in sugar and confectionery products. The introductory part brings the basic knowledge about the classification, chemical structure, properties, and reactions of carbohydrates, including the chirality, stereoisomerism, mutarotation, caramelization, and Maillard reactions. Nutritional properties, occurrence and importance of simple sugars, and the basic characteristics and physiology of polyols and sugar substituents in confectionery are specified as well.

The reader will find information about the classification and preparation of different kinds of confectionery products, such as candies, fondants, caramels, nougat, gums, jellies, chewing gums, and many others. Chocolate and its chemical composition and preparation are described in an individual chapter with an emphasis on chocolate nutritional aspects and benefits. Sources and production of table sugar, its properties, quality, and important functions in food production are mentioned as well. The last part is dedicated to the structure, properties, and reactions of other substances and ingredients used in confectionery, such as pectin, gelatin, agar, lecithin, vanilla, peppermint, and more.


Cocoa Butter Maillard Reaction Glycemic Index Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity Invert Sugar 
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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Carbohydrates and CerealsInstitute of Chemical Technology, PraguePrague 6Czech Republic

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