Mangrove Management, Assessment and Monitoring

  • Klaus Schmitt
  • Norman C. Duke
Living reference work entry


This chapter provides an overview of mangrove management, assessment, and monitoring. It addresses the need for integrated planning and management, based on sound legal principles. The central part of the chapter covers mangrove conservation and planting. Conserving existing mangrove forest is often more effective than planting new forests. When a decision for planting has been made, one has to differentiate between planting on degraded and non-degraded sites and distinguish between replanting, rehabilitation, restoration, and afforestation. Emphasis is put on the need for careful selection of appropriate sites and species and on an ecosystem-based approach to mangrove planting and management which uses and supports natural regeneration and other natural processes. Since the primary intention with any rehabilitation intervention works is for improved protection of existing seedlings and forests from degradation or destruction, then planting should be undertaken only if absolutely necessary. Involving local communities in mangrove management is an effective way of maintaining and enhancing the protection function of the mangrove forest while providing livelihood for local people and contributing to better assessment and governance of natural resources. Assessment of the status of mangrove forests is essential for better conservation planning and management. This includes research and economic assessment and valuation. The last section highlights the importance of applied/participatory as well as academic and long-term monitoring (see also chapter “Mangroves: Unusual Forests at the Seas Edge”).


Mangrove management Planting Rehabilitation Restoration Monitoring Co-management Site assessment Hydrology Coastal dynamic and protection Climate change Ecosystem services Economic values 


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environment and Natural ResourcesDeutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbHQuezon CityPhilippines
  2. 2.TropWATER – Centre for Tropical Water and Aquatic Ecosystem ResearchJames Cook UniversityTownsvilleAustralia

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