Advertisement

Climate Change and Water Security in Dry Areas

  • Ghulam MurtazaEmail author
  • Muhammad Saqib
  • Abdul Ghafoor
  • Wasim Javed
  • Behzad Murtaza
  • Muhammad Kashif Ali
  • Ghulam Abbas
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Purpose – Water quality is deteriorating and its availability is decreasing with time. This chapter presents the implications of climate change for water in agriculture and environment in dry areas. Further adaptation strategies for sustainable use of water resources under changing climatic conditions have been proposed.

Methodology/approach – The focus of this chapter is to analyze the impacts of climate change on water availability and its quality. Thus it will consider the ongoing adaptation efforts and the problems faced in implementing these strategies. In the end certain guidelines and recommendations for addressing climate change in the water sector are also proposed.

Findings – The impacts of climate change on water quality and availability will be elucidated. The factors that govern these impacts will be highlighted, and certain adaptation guidelines will be proposed.

Practical implications – Water is a nonrenewable resource being directly affected by climate change. All the stakeholders including policy makers, water managers, and water users will benefit from this chapter.

Originality/value – Climate change has significant impact on water quality and availability. However, not many studies have been devoted to explore the impacts of climate change and the possible measures to mitigate these impacts on water resources. Thus the management of original and valuable work on the subject is presented.

Keywords

Climate change Water security Dry areas Environment Mitigation Adaptation 

References

  1. Anjum S, Saleem M, Cheema M, Bilal M, Khaliq T (2012) An assessment to vulnerability, extent, characteristics and severity of drought hazard in Pakistan 64(2):138–143Google Scholar
  2. Bates BC, Kundzewicz ZW, Wu S, Palutikof JP (2008) Climate Change and Water. Technical Paper of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC Secretariat, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  3. Beltaos S, Prowse T (2009) River-rice hydrology in a shrinking cryosphere. Hydrol Process 23(1):122–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bloomfield J, Williams R, Gooddy D, Cape J, Guha P (2006) Impacts of climate change on the fate and behaviour of pesticides in surface and groundwater: a UK perspective. Sci Total Environ 369(1):163–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Grimalt JO, Fernandez P, Berdie L, Vilanova RM, Catalan J, Psenner R et al (2001) Selective trapping of organochlorine compounds in mountain lakes of temperate areas. Environ Sci Technol 35(13):2690–2697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Huntington TG (2006) Evidence for intensification of the global water cycle: review and synthesis. J Hydrol 319(1):83–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Imtiaz A (2002) Climate-change, flood control, and drought management- global climatic change and Pakistan’s water-resources. Sci Vis 7(3–4):89–99Google Scholar
  8. Jeppesen E, Kronvang B, Meerhoff M, Søndergaard M, Hansen KM, Andersen HE et al (2009) Climate change effects on runoff, catchment phosphorus loading and lake ecological state, and potential adaptations. J Environ Qual 38(5):1930–1941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Joseph P, Tretsiakova-McNally S (2010) Sustainable non-metallic building materials. Sustainability 2(2):400–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Karl TR, Melillo JM, Peterson TC, Hassol SJ (eds) (2009) Global climate change impacts in the United States. Cambridge University Press, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  11. Kundzewicz ZW, Mata LJ, Arnell NW, Döll P, Kabat P, Jiménez B, Miller KA, Oki T, Sen Z, Shiklomanov IA (2007) Freshwater resources and their management. In: Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (eds) Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 173–210Google Scholar
  12. Lal R (2008) Carbon sequestration. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 363(1492):815–830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Liu Y, Stanturf J, Goodrick S (2010) Trends in global wildfire potential in a changing climate. For Ecol Manag 259(4):685–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. MacDonald AM, Bonsor HC, Calow RC, Taylor RG, Lapworth DJ, Maurice L, et al. (2011) Groundwater resilience to climate change in Africa. British Geological Survey Open Report, pp. 1–32Google Scholar
  15. Meehl GA, Stocker TF, Collins WD, Friedlingstein P, Gaye AT, Gregory JM, Kitoh A, Knutti R, Murphy JM, Noda A, Raper SCB, Watterson IG, Weaver AJ and Zhao ZC (2007) Global Climate Projections. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Climate Change 2007. The physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
  16. Moatar F, Gailhard J (2006) Water temperature behaviour in the River Loire since 1976 and 1881. Compt Rendus Geosci 338(5):319–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Myers RL (2006) Living with fire–Sustaining ecosystems & livelihoods through integrated fire management. Global Fire Initiative, The Nature Conservancy, Tallahassee, FLGoogle Scholar
  18. Naheed G, Rasul G (2011) Investigation of rainfall variability for Pakistan. Pak J Meteorol (14):53–62Google Scholar
  19. Parry ML (2007) Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability: Working Group II contribution to the fourth assessment report of the IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, vol 4. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  20. Qian T, Dai A, Trenberth KE, Oleson KW (2006) Simulation of global land surface conditions from 1948 to 2004. Part I: Forcing data and evaluations. J Hydrometeorol 7(5):953–975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rangwala I, Miller JR (2012) Climate change in mountains: a review of elevation-dependent warming and its possible causes. Clim Chang 114(3–4):527–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Reid H, Huq S (2007) Community-based adaptation: a vital approach to the threat climate change poses to the poor. International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) briefing paper, IIED, LondonGoogle Scholar
  23. Seiz G, Foppa N (2007) The activities of the World Glacier Monitoring Service. Report of the Swiss Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology, MeteoSchweiz, ZurichGoogle Scholar
  24. Shardul A, Samuel F (2008) Economic aspects of adaptation to climate change costs, benefits and policy instruments: costs, benefits and policy instruments. OECD, Paris, FranceGoogle Scholar
  25. Stern NNH (2007) The economics of climate change: the Stern review. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, USACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Swetnam TW, Allen CD, Betancourt JL (1999) Applied historical ecology: using the past to manage for the future. Ecol Appl 9(4):1189–1206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Trenberth KE, Dai A, Rasmussen RM, Parsons DB (2003) The changing character of precipitation. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 84(9):1205–1217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Trenberth KE, Smith L, Qian T, Dai A, Fasullo J (2007) Estimates of the global water budget and its annual cycle using observational and model data. J Hydrometeorol 8(4):758–769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. United Nations (2009) Economic Commission for Europe. Guidance on water and adaptation to climate change. United Nations Publications, New York and Geneva.Google Scholar
  30. Várallyay G (2010) The impact of climate change on soils and on their water management. In: International scientific conference, risks in agriculture: environmental and economic consequences, 8–10 June 2010, vol 8, Special II. Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Tallinn, pp 385–396Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ghulam Murtaza
    • 1
    Email author
  • Muhammad Saqib
    • 1
  • Abdul Ghafoor
    • 1
  • Wasim Javed
    • 2
  • Behzad Murtaza
    • 1
  • Muhammad Kashif Ali
    • 3
  • Ghulam Abbas
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Soil and Environmental SciencesUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.Air Quality Research CenterUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  3. 3.National Engineering Services of Pakistan (NESPAK)LahorePakistan

Personalised recommendations