Approaches to Climate Change Adaptation of Vulnerable Coastal Communities of India

Living reference work entry

Abstract

In the context of developing countries, climate change and variability poses a serious threat to the coastal rural communities due to their poor adaptive capacities, weak implementation of developmental activities, and lack of technological solutions needed to address this challenge. In order to address the current vulnerabilities of these coastal communities where development initiatives are itself lacking, adaptation measures will play a crucial role in streamlining and collaborating with development initiatives. Literature review in Indian context suggests that there are no estimates available of impact of climate change on coastal agriculture and fisheries and therefore on agricultural, pastoral, and fishing communities. This research addresses the aforementioned research gap with a case study from Western India focusing on livelihood security and human well-being while integrating development plans to climate change adaptation. Based on vulnerabilities identified for the study areas, adaptation plan consisting of goals with several measures were created which were linked to existing national development schemes along with their co-benefits and barriers to implementation. Development choices made today will influence the adaptive capacity of people in the future. Thus, there is an urgent need to undertake development activities and decision making with climate lens, and this research will be the first step in the process.

Keywords

Mainstreaming climate change adaptation Adaptation plan and options National and state development plans Millennium development goals 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This paper is partly based on my Masters Dissertation work at Centre for Environment Planning and Technology (CEPT) University, Ahmedabad. Vulnerability assessment section of this paper is under the process of getting published as working paper for CEPT University publication along with Mr. Ashwani Kumar (Assistant Professor, Faculty of Planning, CEPT University). I would like to thank him for his comments, discussions, and support provided during the dissertation and while writing working paper.
Table 6

Linking national and state development goals to adaptation goals

Component: Goal

Policy/project

Policy brief

National/state driven

Target group

Relevance and applicability w.r.t climate change adaptation (CCA)

Rationale

Policy updation needed w.r.t CCA?

Creating public awareness about climate change, disaster prevention response

Friend of village scheme

It appoints individuals in the village who educate villagers on various development schemes. Each appointee would deal in the area of agriculture, education, health, development, and human welfare, respectively

State driven

Rural community

High

Awareness is the first step towards change

Yes, keeping in view future climate changes, appointed staff can be trained to train the villagers to increase the awareness and need of community and individual-level participation to increase their adaptive capacity

Water: provide safe and consistent drinking water and water for other (domestic, agriculture) needs

National rural drinking water program

Aims to provide every rural person with adequate safe water for drinking, cooking, and other domestic basic needs on a sustainable basis

Center driven, partial funding, state into partial funding and implementation

Rural community

High

To ensure the 40 l/capita/day water for rural population needs even in the face of climate variability and make provision for alternate source of potable water

Yes, to ensure the fulfillment of sustained water needs in face of climate change and variability

Integrated watershed management program

Aims to restore ecological balance by harnessing, conserving, and developing degraded natural resources such as soil, vegetative cover, and water

Center driven and funded, state implementation

All community

High

Climate variability is affecting the drought-prone areas with reduced forest cover, reducing water table, and a shortage of drinking water, fuel, and fodder IWMP caters to these needs

Yes, to ensure soil and water conservation in case of future climate change

 

MGNREGA

Aims at enhancing the livelihood security of people in rural areas by guaranteeing 100 days of wage employment in a financial year to a rural household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work

Center driven, partial funding, state: partial funding and implementation

Rural community

High

Along with livelihood security, it also provides environment protection, hence enhancing adaptive capacity and reducing vulnerability

Yes, already guidelines are there to converge MGNREGA and IWMP program and agriculture program

Salinity ingress prevention and control scheme

Due to salinity ingress in the underground water, suggested construction of tidal regulators and weirs near the ocean bank, refilling lakes, refilling reservoirs, check dams, and spreading channel, etc., near the inside land area coastal Gujarat state

Center funded

Coastal communities

High

Efforts are such that it prevents salinity from spreading further

Yes, keeping in view the consequences of future climate change of (SLR and coastal inundation)

Livelihood: provide diversified livelihoods and aid in livelihood sustenance

Universal education for all

Free primary education for children

Center driven, state implementation

All children

Medium

Increasing the education level may bring other opportunities of employment rather than just natural resource-dependent employments

MGNREGA

As mentioned previously

 

Women SHG scheme

To enable the poor women, particularly in rural areas of Gujarat to improve their access to resources and strengthen livelihoods and quality of life

State driven

Rural community

Medium

Women empowerment can lead to better decision making and alter source of income and hence increasing adaptive capacity of the household

National rural livelihood mission

Aims to reduce poverty among rural BPL by promoting diversified and gainful self-employment and wage employment opportunities which would lead to an appreciable increase in income on sustainable basis

Center driven, state implementation

Rural – BPL

High

May bring other opportunities of employment rather than just natural resource-dependent employments

Infrastructure and institutional setup: improvement of built environment

MGNREGA

As mentioned previously

Jamin Sampadani scheme

In order to increase standard of rural life, structural facilities, viz., drinking water, sewerage, street lighting electricity in house internal roads, and approach roads, should be included under the scheme

State driven

Rural community

Medium

It provides basic amenities, hence increasing adaptive capacity

Yes, can enhance keeping in mind climate lens. Sewerage network must be developed keeping in mind the extreme rainfall and runoff

 

Prime minister village roads scheme

To provide connectivity, by way of an all-weather road, to the eligible unconnected habitations in the rural areas with a population of 500 persons and above in plain areas

Center driven, partial funding, state into partial funding and implementation

Rural community

Medium

Internal village roads are temporary, while main road is still tar road and connected to highway

Total sanitation campaign

It is a comprehensive program to ensure sanitation facilities in rural areas with broader goal to eradicate the practice of open defecation

Center driven, partial funding, state into partial funding and implementation

Rural community

Medium

Increasing frequency of floods in the future would increase water-borne diseases, reach to poor community toilets or at household remains

Gokul Gram Scheme

For overall development and fulfilling basic amenities of the villages

State driven

Rural community

Medium

Helps building the infrastructure, reduces vulnerability

Clean village, healthy village scheme

Financial assistance given for clean village

State driven

Rural community

Medium

Flooding of areas, unpicked and untreated solid waste increase diseases, affects health

Indira Gandhi housing scheme/(Sardar Patel Housing Scheme)*

Provides assistance to BPL who are either houseless or have inadequate housing facilities for constructing a safe and durable shelter for environmentally sound habitat with adequate provisions

Center policy making and partial funding, state into partial funding and implementation/(state funded)*

Rural – BPL

High

Poor and marginalized households are more vulnerable as their houses are majorly built on temporary structures as they lack monetary support

Yes, keeping in mind the extreme events, location of the houses, and construction of the houses should be revised which will depend on the state- and village-specific development plans

 

Panchavati scheme

Aims at the welfare of rural people to develop parks in the village with necessary facilities. Trees can be suggested by villagers and may also be grown in wasteland near the village

State driven

Rural community

High

Increase in green cover can lead to co-benefit of mitigation along with adaptation. Horticulture trees can reap monetary benefit to the community along with increase in water table

Natural resource dependence: functioning of healthy coastal ecosystem

Social forestry

Aims to take off pressure from existing forests by planting trees on all unused and fallow land, thus helping in social, rural development, and environment protection

Central Ministry driven

All population

High

-do-

NAPCC: Solar mission

Promotes ecologically sustainable growth while addressing India’s energy security challenge by introducing solar renewable energy

Central Ministry driven

All population

High

Leads to energy-efficient economic development having co-benefit of adaptation and mitigation

Integrated Coastal Zone Management Program

Promotes (1) coastal resource conservation and management, (2) monitoring, (3) socioeconomic development, (4) geo-spatial mapping for scientific database

Central Ministry driven

Initiated for states of Gujarat, Orissa, and West Bengal later for all remaining 6 coastal states

High

Contribute towards increased understanding and acceptance of the need to protect, conserve, and regenerate coastal natural resources by local rural communities

Yes, revision of the hazard mapping and shoreline protection measures keeping in view the future extreme events

Table 7

Adaptation options and MCA

Major component

Adaptation options for noted issues

Hard (0.25)/soft option (1)

Economy wide impact (changes with global (0.25)/national (0.5) and local economy/none (1)

Public (hard −0.25, soft – 0.5)/private (0.5)/Public Private Partnership (1)

Adaptation – mitigation linkages 1/0 if none)

Ancillary benefits (1/0 if none)

Total score (out of 5

Ranking options

Sociodemographic

Training and raising public awareness on what is climate change and for active adaptation to disasters and climate change impacts

1

1

1

1

1

5

1

Making a climate change committee and maintaining a climate change register and impacts on various sectors like health, agriculture, biodiversity, etc., for each village

1

1

1

1

1

5

1

Water

Training on climate change and water variability and the need to conserve water especially to farmers

1

1

1

1

1

5

1

Training for optimum use of water, water conservation techniques demonstration, and improving agricultural practices under Gram Mitra scheme

1

1

1

1

1

5

1

Provision of tap water in 90:10 partnership with villages

1

1

0.5

0

1

3.5

5

Existing ongoing SIPC works

0.25

1

0.25

1

1

3.5

5

Building of community rain water harvesting tanks to store rain water

0.25

1

1

1

1

4.25

3

Building of conservation ponds and recharge wells under MGNREGA scheme

0.25

1

1

1

1

4.25

3

Livelihoods

Creation of microfinance banking facilities

0.25

0.5

0.5

0

1

2.25

9

Awareness camps for benefits of education/teaching under CSR (corporate social responsibility)

1

1

1

1

1

5

1

Training for use of optimum fertilizers, switching to organic farming, and growing indigenous grains

1

1

1

1

1

5

1

Shifting to drought resistant variety of grains

0.25

0.5

0.5

1

1

3.25

6

Training and awareness among villagers on usage of proper net and about fish catch season

1

1

1

1

1

5

1

Infrastructure

Build pucca roads under MGNREGA, Jamin Sampadani scheme, prime minister village road scheme

0.25

1

1

0

1

3.25

6

Provision of bins for waste segregation

1

1

0.5

0

1

3.5

5

Clean village competition among villages

1

1

0.5

0

1

3.5

5

Provision of storm water drain network*

0.25

0.5

0.25

1

1

3

7

Channelizing storm water to ponds for recharging*

0.25

0.5

0.25

1

1

3

7

Building Sanitation

0.25

1

1

0

1

3.25

6

Health and communication

Health camps

1

1

1

0

1

4

4

Private visiting doctors

1

1

1

0

1

4

4

Infrastructure setup for PHC (can turn out to be long term)

0.25

1

1

0

1

3.25

6

Training and awareness among villagers on interpretation and usage of weather warning systems

1

1

1

1

1

5

1

Phase-wise implementation of weather warning systems

0.25

1

0.25

0

1

2.5

8

Revision of emergency plan with flood maps, emergency meet points, evacuation plans and maps

1

1

0.5

0

1

3.5

5

Biophysical

Over wasteland: under Panchavati scheme, develop gardens

1

1

0.5

1

1

4.5

2

Community forest under social forestry

1

1

0.5

1

1

4.5

2

Tree plantation as a part of CSR drive by industries

1

1

1

1

1

5

1

Harnessing solar energy for cooking purposes

1

1

0.5

1

1

4.5

2

Agriculture base villages have potential to use biogas plant for cooking needs

1

1

0.5

1

1

4.5

2

Training and awareness among villagers of importance of biodiversity

1

1

1

1

1

5

1

Vigilance and recording of species loss if any

1

1

0.5

1

1

4.5

2

Plantation activity by the green committee already in the village formed under ICZMP

1

1

1

1

1

5

1

Payment in terms of environment taxes for ecosystem services by the industries

1

1

1

1

1

5

1

* Info. from data collected by Village head in 2011

Table 8

Adaptation plan

Major component

Issues

Short-term measure (1 to 5 years) action plan (2013–2017)

Time frame

Stakeholder

Medium-term measure (5 to 10 years) long term (10 to 20 years)

Stakeholder

Existing policy/program which is/can be used

Constraints

Additional/co-benefits

Adaption measure category (no regret/low regret/climate justified)

Adaptation goal (1) creating public awareness about climate change, disaster prevention response

Sociodemographic

Lack of awareness on climate change and its impacts

1. Training and raising public awareness on what is climate change and for active adaptation to climate change impacts

2013 onwards on continuous basis

NGO, state climate change department, Gram Panchayata

1. Upkeep of training sharing scientific information wrt sectors, status of issues

NGO, state climate change department, Gram Panchayat

Can be targeted under SAPCC

1. Lack of fund

1. Public support during the execution of other actions mentioned below and hence ease of execution

No regret

2. Making a climate change committee and maintaining a climate change register and impacts on various sectors like health, agriculture, biodiversity, etc., for each village

2013

2. Discussion and revision of action plana

2. Lack of willingness and acceptance to learn from villagers side

2. People ownership created for works done

3. Lack of quality staff and material to train in vernacular language

Adaptation goal (2) provide safe and consistent drinking water and water for other (domestic, agriculture) needs

Water

Water quality and availability

1. Training on climate change and water variability, the need to conserve water especially for farmers

2013 onwards

NGO, state climate change department, Gram Panchayat

Upkeep of training sharing scientific information w.r.t sectors, status of issues

Gram Panchayat, villagers

Can be targeted under SAPCC

1. Funding

 

No regret

2. Willingness to take ownership among villagers

1. Training for water conservation techniques demonstration and improving agricultural practices under Gram Mitra scheme

2013 onwards on continuous basis

State govt. Gram Panchayat, NGO local people

1. Maintenance and upkeep of ponds, regular desilting, repairing, etc.

  

Willingness by farmers to change practices

 

No regret

2. Water pricing schemes

3. Compulsory use of drip irrigation in case of irrigated land

  

Provision of tap water in 90:10 partnership with villages

2013–2017

WASMO (Water and Sanitation Monitoring Organization), NGO, villagers, private company owning land ( in case of Khijadiya salt pan workers colony)

Upkeep and maintenance of piped water

Gram Panchayat, villagers operations and maintenance committee

NRDWP

  

No regret

Existing ongoing SIP works

Ongoing −2017

Narmada water resources, water supply, and Kalpsar department

Incorporating climate resiliency features in the SIPC future and pending activities

High-level committee for salinity ingress study

SIPC

Cost, other logistical arrangement for SIP works

Benefit to farmers for irrigation

Climate justified

1. Building of community rain water harvesting tanks to store rain water

2013–2015

NGO, state climate change department, Gram Panchayat

Upkeep of ponds and recharge wells

Gram Panchayat, villagers operations and maintenance (O&M) committee

MGNREGA

1. Funding

Increases the water recharge and availability of water sources

No regret

2. Building of conservation ponds and recharge wells under MGNREGA scheme

2. willingness to take ownership among villagers

3. Gram Panchayat’s willingness to take activities under MGNREGA

Adaptation goal (3) provide diversified livelihoods and aid in livelihood sustenance

Livelihoods

Lack of credit societies (high level of interest rate to middle men esp. for Rasulnagar village)

Creation of microfinance banking facilities

2013–2015

Banks

   

Willingness by banks to set up small units

 

Low regret

Lack of education level and lack of livelihood

1. Awareness camps for benefits of education

2013 onwards

State government, NGO

Introduction of vocational classes

NGO

UEE

1. Willingness to learn among villagers

Improved adaptive capacity with increased livelihood options on being educated

No regret

2. Teaching under CSR activity

2014 onwards

2. Willingness among companies to come and teach

 

Lack of good agricultural practices

1.Training for use of optimum fertilizers, switching to organic farming, and growing indigenous grains

Various camps throughout 2013–2017

State government, National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD), agriculture department NGO

Removing subsidies on water, electricity, and fertilizers

State government

 

Willingness by farmers to change practices

 

No regret/low regret

2. Shifting to drought resistant variety of grains

Lack of good fishing practices

Training and awareness among villagers on the usage of proper net and not to catch fish in the spawning season

 

Fishers department, NGO

  

Willingness by fishermen to change practices

 

No regret

Adaptation goal (4) improvement of built environment

Infrastructure and institutional setup

Poor infrastructure and lack of conveyance to connecting highway or major city

Build metaled roads

2013–2015

Gram Panchayat, villagers

Upkeep and maintenance of roads under MGNREGA

Gram Panchayat, villagers

MGNREGA, Jamin Sampadani scheme, Prime minister village road scheme

Lack of resources (time, money, manpower) and rural look out may be low on priority

Reduced health hazards

Low regret

Lack of solid waste collection management

1. Provision of bins for waste segregation

2013–2014

State govt. for fund, Gram Panchayat, NGO, local people

  

Nirmal Gujarat scheme, Swatchcha Gram scheme

Funding, willingness to take ownership among villagers

Reduced health issues

No regret

2. Clean village competition among rural villages

2014 onwards

Lack of drainage and no sewerage

1. Provision of storm water drain network*

2013–2017

GWSSB (Ground Water Supply and Sewerage Board), Gram Panchayat local villagers

1. Provision of sewerage network

GWSSB, Gram Panchayat local villagers O&M committee

 

Funding lack on priority for rural lookout

 

Low regret*/climate justified

2. Channelizing storm water to ponds for recharging*

2. Treating the sewerage waste before releasing to river or sea

3. Upkeep of the storm water drains

Lack of sanitation facilities

Building sanitation facilities

Ongoing −2017

Gram Panchayat, NGO, CSR funding, MNP

  

TSC, Nirmal Gujarat scheme

  

Low regret

Adaptation goal (5) human safety and enhanced human safety

Health and communication

Lack of PHC

1. Health camps

2013 onwards

State government

   

Funding, lack on priority for rural lookout

 

Low regret

2. Private visiting doctors

3. Infrastructure setup for PHC ( can turn out to be long term)

2013–2017

Lack of weather warning system

Training and awareness among villagers on interpretation and usage of weather warning systems

2017

Indian Meteorology Department (IMD), NGO

Upgrade the warning system, upkeep of system

IMD, local contract

 

Funding lack on priority for rural lookout

Due to increased preparedness reduced loss to life and monetary loss

Climate justified

Phase-wise implementation of weather warning systems

Lack of emergency planning

Revision of emergency plan with flood maps, emergency meet points, evacuation plans and maps

2013–2017

Gujarat State Disaster Management Agency (GSDMA)

Evacuation maps and plans alternate route to connect this village with highway as of now there is only one way to reach the village

Climate change department, GSDMA

 

Lack of resources (time, money, manpower) and rural look out may be low on priority

 

Climate justified

Adaptation goal (6) functioning of healthy coastal ecosystem

Natural resources dependence

Lack of green cover

Over wasteland

2013–2016

1. Gram Panchayat, state dept.

Maintenance and upkeep of planted trees

Gram Panchayat

Panchavati scheme social forestry, MNREGA

Upkeep of parks (managing CPR)

Reduce storm water runoff, increase in water table, increase in cohesion among community, improve quality of life

No regret

1. Under Panchavati scheme, develop gardens

2. Gram Panchayat and Forest department

2. Community forest under social forestry (local species of trees to be chosen, horticulture trees for social forestry can provide monetary benefits also)

3. Private companies falling under companies bill for CSR mandate

3. Tree plantation as a part of CSR drive by industries

Dependence on biomass for fuel need

1. Harnessing solar energy for cooking purposes

2013–2017

Gujarat Energy Development Agency (GEDA), Gram Panchayat, local villagers

Harnessing wind and tidal energy to generate electricity, earn carbon credits, income from it can be used to enhance facilities of the village

 

National Solar Mission under NAPCC

Funding, acceptance of new technology

Increased alternate source of income for the village, reduced GHG emissions

Low regret

2. Villages with agriculture (*except Rasulnagar/fishermen villages) has potential to use biogas plant for cooking needs (carbon credits earned can be used to enhance the facilities of the villages)

Biophysical

Loss of biodiversity – mangroves, corals, sea grass, dugong, etc.

1. Training and awareness among villagers of importance of biodiversity

2013 onwards

GEC MNP, polluting industries along the coast, local green committee

Upkeep and maintenance of biodiversity, strong vigilance of polluting industries

Villagers committee, GPCB (Gujarat Pollution Control Board)

ICZMP

Vigilance on polluting industries, noncorrupt officials

 

No regret

2. Vigilance and recording of species loss if any

3. Plantation activity by the green committee already in the village formed under ICZMP

4. Payment in terms of environment taxes for ecosystem services by the industries

2014 onwards

Village specific – Rasulnagar

Livelihood

No fish landing center

Providing fishing landing center

2013–2016

Gram Panchayat, villagers, fisheries department

Upkeep and maintenance of the fish landing center

Gram Panchayat, villagers

 

Funding, low priority

 

Low regret

Sociodemographic

Lack of women empowerment and involvement in alternate livelihoods

Awareness camps for women empowerment, women SHG formation skills training program

2013–2014

NGO, Gram Panchayat

   

Willingness to accept idea of women empowerment

Alternate sources of livelihood

No regret

Natural disaster and climate variability

Impact due to storm surges

Creating sand bunds, creating living shorelines

2013–2015

Gram Panchayat, villagers, GSDMA

Creating surge protection walls

GSDMA

   

No regret* climate justified

Village specific – Khijadiya

Biophysical

Impact on coastal wetland

1. Involvement of villagers in the upkeep of the wetlands

2013–2017

MNP, villagers

Maintenance of wetland and maintenance of the level of freshwater suitable for the migratory birds

MNP, local villagers

ICZMP, MGNREGA

Lack of villagers knowledge leading to malpractices

Alternate source of livelihood

No regret

2. Coastal wetland protection and restoration

Development of common pastoral land

Involvement of villagers in the developing of pastoral land for cattle fodder

2013–2017

Gram Panchayat, villagers

Maintenance of pastoral land

Gram Panchayat, villagers

 

Willingness to take ownership among villagers

  

Infrastructure

Poor housing infrastructure for salt pan workers which also a low-lying area flooded every year

Salt pan workers company to provide cyclone, flood-resistant housing

2013–2017

Salt pan company

  

Indira housing scheme, Sardar Patel housing scheme,

Company unwilling to spend extra money on the required changes

 

Climate justified

Village specific – Khara Beraja

Infrastructure

Poor housing infrastructure

To provide cyclone, flood resistant housing

2013–2017

Gram Panchayat, state department, villagers

  

Indira housing scheme, Sardar Patel housing scheme,

Funding, low priority

 

Climate justified

Gram Panchayat: local self-government at village level

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Climate Change ConsultantAhmedabadIndia

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