Dental Adaptations of African Apes

  • Mark F. TeafordEmail author
  • Peter S. Ungar
Reference work entry


Improvements in the primate fossil record, and in methods of data acquisition and analysis, have set the stage for new insights into the development, function, and evolution of hominoid teeth. This chapter is a brief review of recent advances. In essence, genetic analyses are changing our perspectives on the evolution of morphology, while improved studies of dental development and microstructure have yielded permanent markers of developmental history and microstructural differences of functional significance. More realistic perspectives on the physical properties of foods are yielding new functional interpretations of differences in tooth size. Finally, landmark-free analyses of tooth shape and wear are giving researchers the chance to actually monitor how teeth are used in living primates and by extrapolation in fossil primates too. Through techniques such as these will come a better understanding of the intricacies of dental function and a clearer picture of our past.


Geographic Information System Dental Development Mountain Gorilla Tooth Size Tooth Shape 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Anemone RL, Watts ES, Swindler DR (1991) Dental development of known-age chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes (Primates: Pongidae). Am J Phys Anthropol 86:229–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anemone RL, Mooney MP, Siegel MI (1996) Longitudinal study of dental development in chimpanzees of known chronological age: implications for understanding the age at death of Plio-Pleistocene hominids. Am J Phys Anthropol 99:119–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashton EH, Zuckerman S (1950) Some quantitative dental characteristics of the chimpanzee, gorilla, and orang-utan. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 234:471–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benazzi S, Nguyen HN, Kullmer O, Hublin J-J (2013) Unravelling the functional biomechanics of dental features and tooth wear. PLoS One 8(7):e69990PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berthaume M, Grosse I, Patel ND, Strait DS, Wood S, Richmond BG (2010) The effect of early hominin occlusal morphology on the fracturing of hard food items. Anat Rec 293:594–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beynon AD, Dean MC (1988) Distinct dental development patterns in early fossil hominids. Nature 335:509–514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beynon AD, Dean MC, Reid DJ (1991) Histological study on the chronology of the developing dentition in gorilla and orangutan. Am J Phys Anthropol 86:189–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beynon AD, Clayton CB, Ramirez-Rozzi FV, Reid DJ (1998) Radiographic and histological methodologies in estimating the chronology of crown development in modern humans and great apes: a review, with some applications for studies on juvenile hominids. J Hum Evol 35:351–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Biggerstaff RH (1969) The basal area of posterior tooth crown components: the assessment of within tooth variations of premolars and molars. Am J Phys Anthropol 31:163–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bjarnason A, Chamberlain AT, Lockwood CA (2011) A methodological investigation of hominoid craniodental morphology and phylogenetics. J Hum Evol 60:47–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Black GV (1902) Dental anatomy, 4th edn. White, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  12. Bolter DR, Zihlman AL (2011) Brief communication: Dental development timing in captive Pan paniscus with comparisons to Pan troglodytes. Am J Phys Anthropol 145:647–652PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boughner JC, Dean MC (2008) Mandibular shape, ontogeny and dental development in bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Evolut Biol 35:296–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Boughner JC, Dean MC, Wilgenbusch CS (2012) Permanent tooth mineralization in bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Am J Phys Anthropol 149:560–571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Boyde A (1964) The structure and development of mammalian enamel. PhD thesis, University of LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Boyde A, Martin LB (1982) Enamel microstructure determination in hominoid and cercopithecoid primates. Anat Embryol 165:193–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Boyde A, Jones SJ, Reynolds PS (1978) Quantitative and qualitative studies of enamel etching with acid and EDTA. Scan Electron Microsc II:991–1002Google Scholar
  18. Bromage TG, Dean MC (1985) Re-evaluation of age at death of immature fossil hominids. Nature 317:525–527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Butler PM (1952) The milk molars of perissodactyla, with remarks on molar occlusion. Proc Zool Soc Lond 121:777–817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Butler PM (2000) The evolution of tooth shape and function in primates. In: Teaford MF, Smith MM, Ferguson MWJ (eds) Development, function and evolution of teeth. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 201–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Calandra I, Schulz E, Pinnow M, Krohn S, Kaiser TM (2012) Teasing apart the contributions of hard dietary items on 3D dental microtextures in primates. J Hum Evol 63:85–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Campbell TD (1925) Dentition and palate of the Australian aboriginal. Hassell, AdelaideGoogle Scholar
  23. Collard M, Wood B (2000) How reliable are human phylogenetic hypotheses? Proc Natl Acad Sci 97:5003–5006PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Conroy GC (1987) Problems in body weight estimation in fossil primates. Int J Primatol 8:115–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Conroy GC, Mahoney CJ (1991) Mixed longitudinal study of dental emergence in the chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes (Primates, Pongidae). Am J Phys Anthropol 86:243–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Constantino PJ, Lucas PW, Lee JJ-W, Lawn BR (2009) The influence of fallback foods on great ape tooth enamel. Am J Phys Anthropol 140:653–660PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Constantino PJ, Lee JJ-W, Gerbig Y, Hartstone-Rose A, Talebi M, Lawn BR, Lucas PW (2012) The role of tooth enamel mechanical properties in primate dietary adaptation. Am J Phys Anthropol 148:171–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Copes LE, Schwartz GT (2010) The scale of it all: Postcanine tooth size, the taxon-level effect, and the universality of Gould’s scaling law. Paleobiology 36:188–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Corruccini RS (1977) Crown component variation in hominoid lower third molars. Z Morphol Anthropol 68:14–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Corruccini RS (1978) Crown component variation in hominoid upper first premolars. Arch Oral Biol 23:491–494PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Crompton AW, Sita-Lumsden AG (1970) Functional significance of Therian molar pattern. Nature 227:197–199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cuy JL, Mann AB, Livi KJ, Teaford MF, Weihs TP (2002) Nanoindentation mapping of the mechanical properties of molar enamel. Arch Oral Biol 47:281–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Daegling DJ, McGraw WS, Ungar PS, Pampush JD, Vick AE, Bitty EA (2011) Hard object feeding in sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) and the interpretation of early hominin feeding ecology. PLoS One 6(e23095):1–12Google Scholar
  34. Daegling DJ, Judex S, Ozcivici E, Ravosa MJ, Taylor AB, Grine FE, Teaford MF, Ungar PS (2013) Viewpoints: feeding mechanics, diet, and dietary adaptations in early hominins. Am J Phys Anthropol 151:356–371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dahlberg AA (1960) Microscopic studies of abrasion and attrition on tooth surfaces. J Dent Res 39:713–714Google Scholar
  36. Dahlberg AA, Kinzey WG (1962) Etude microscopique de l’abrasion et de l’attrition sur la surface des dents. Bull Group Int Rech Sci Stomatol Odontol 21:36–60Google Scholar
  37. Dean MC (2000) Progress in understanding hominid dental development. J Anat 197:77–101PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dean MC, Wood BA (1981) Developing pongid dentition and its use for ageing individual crania in comparative cross-sectional growth studies. Folia Primatol 36:111–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dean MC, Jones ME, Pilley JR (1992) The natural history of tooth wear, continuous eruption and periodontal disease in wild shot great apes. J Hum Evol 22:23–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dean MC, Beynon AD, Thackeray JF, Macho GA (1993) Histological reconstruction of dental development and age at death of a juvenile Paranthropus robustus specimen, SK 63, from Swartkrans, South Africa. Am J Phys Anthropol 91:401–419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dean MC, Leakey MG, Reid D, Schrenk F, Schwartz GT, Stringer C, Walker A (2001) Growth processes in teeth distinguish modern humans from Homo erectus and earlier hominins. Nature 414:628–631PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Deane A (2009) First contact: understanding the relationship between hominoid incisor curvature and diet. J Hum Evol 56:263–274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Deane AS (2012) New evidence for canine dietary function in Afropithecus turkanensis. J Hum Evol 62:707–719PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Delezene LK, Zolnierz MS, Teaford MF, Kimbel WH, Grine FE, Ungar PS (2013) Premolar microwear and tooth use in Australopithecus afarensis. J Hum Evol 65:282–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Doran DM, McNeilage A, Greer D, Bocian C, Mehlman P, Shah N (2002) Western lowland gorilla diet and resource availability: new evidence, cross-site comparisons, and reflections on indirect sampling methods. Am J Primatol 58:91–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Dumont ER (1995) Enamel thickness and dietary adaptation among extant primates and chiropterans. J Mammal 76:1127–1136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fiorenza L, Kullmer O (2013) Dental wear and cultural behavior in Middle Paleolithic humans from the Near East. Am J Phys Anthropol 152:107–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fortelius M (1985) Ungulate cheek teeth: developmental, functional and evolutionary interrelationships. Acta Zool Fenn 180:1–76Google Scholar
  49. Gantt DG (1977) Enamel of primate teeth: its thickness and structure with reference to functional and phyletic implications. PhD dissertation, Washington UniversityGoogle Scholar
  50. Gantt DG (1979) A method of interpreting enamel prism patterns. Scan Electron Microsc II:975–981Google Scholar
  51. Gantt DG (1983) The enamel of Neogene hominoids: structural and phyletic implications. In: Ciochon RL, Corruccini RS (eds) New interpretations of ape and human ancestry. Plenum Press, New York, pp 249–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gantt DG, Kappelman J, Ketcham RA, Alder ME, Deahl TH (2006) Three-dimensional reconstruction of enamel thickness and volume in humans and hominoids. Eur J Oral Sci 114:360–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Garn SM, Lewis AB (1963) Phylogenetic and intraspecific variations in tooth sequence polymorphisms. In: Brothwell DR (ed) Dental anthropology. Pergamon, Oxford, pp 53–73Google Scholar
  54. Garn SM, Lewis AB, Kerewsky RS (1965) Genetic, nutritional and maturational correlates of dental development. J Dent Res 44:228–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Garn SM, Lewis AB, Kerewsky RS (1968) The magnitude and implications of the relationship between tooth size and body size. Arch Oral Biol 13:129–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gingerich PD, Smith BH, Rosenberger K (1982) Allometric scaling in the dentition of primates and prediction of body weight from tooth size in fossils. Am J Phys Anthropol 57:81–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gordon KD (1982) A study of microwear on chimpanzee molars: implications for dental microwear analysis. Am J Phys Anthropol 59:195–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gordon KD (1984) Hominoid dental microwear: complications in the use of microwear analysis to detect diet. J Dent Res 63:1043–1046PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gould SJ (1975) On the scaling of tooth size in mammals. Am Zool 15:351–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Greenfield LO, Washburn A (1992) Polymorphic aspects of male anthropoid honing premolars. Am J Phys Anthropol 87:173–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gregory WK (1922) The origin and evolution of the human dentition. Williams & Wilkins, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  62. Grine FE (1977) Analysis of early hominid deciduous molar wear by scanning electron microscopy: a preliminary report. Proc Electron Microsc Soc S Afr 7:157–158Google Scholar
  63. Grine FE (1991) Computed tomography and the measurement of enamel thickness in extant hominoids: implications for its palaeontological application. Palaeontol Afr 28:61–69Google Scholar
  64. Grine FE (2002) Scaling of tooth enamel thickness, and molar crown size reduction in modern humans. S Afr J Sci 98:503–509Google Scholar
  65. Grine FE (2005) Enamel thickness of deciduous and permanent molars in modern Homo sapiens. Am J Phys Anthropol 126:14–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Grine FE, Ungar PS, Teaford MF (2002) Error rates in dental microwear quantification using scanning electron microscopy. Scanning 24:144–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Grine FE, Judex S, Daegling DJ, Ozcivici E, Ungar PS, Teaford MF, Sponheimer M, Scott J, Scott RS, Walker A (2010) Craniofacial biomechanics and functional and dietary inferences in hominin paleontology. J Hum Evol 58:293–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Grine FE, Sponheimer M, Ungar PS, Lee-Thorp J, Teaford MF (2012) Dental microwear and stable isotopes inform the paleoecology of extinct hominins. Am J Phys Anthropol 148:285–317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hartman SE (1989) Stereophotogrammetric analysis of occlusal morphology of extant hominoid molars: phenetics and function. Am J Phys Anthropol 80:145–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hiiemae K, Kay RF (1972) Trends in evolution of primate mastication. Nature 240:486–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Huxley TH (1863) Evidence as to man’s place in nature. Williams & Norgate, LondonGoogle Scholar
  72. Hylander WL (1975) Incisor size and diet in anthropoids with special reference to Cercopithecidae. Science 189:1095–1097PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Jernvall J (2000) Linking development with generation of novelty in mammalian teeth. Proc Natl Acad Sci 97:2641–2645PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Jernvall J, Selänne L (1999) Laser confocal microscopy and geographic information systems in the study of dental morphology. Palaeontol Electron 2:18Google Scholar
  75. Johanson DC (1974) Some metric aspects of the permanent and deciduous dentition of the pygmy chimpanzee (Pan paniscus). Am J Phys Anthropol 41:39–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Jolly CJ (1970) The seed eaters: a new model of hominid differentiation based on a baboon analogy. Man 5:5–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kay RF (1975) The functional adaptations of primate molar teeth. Am J Phys Anthropol 42:195–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kay RF (1977) Diets of early Miocene African hominoids. Nature 268:628–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kay RF (1978) Molar structure and diet in extant Cercopithecidae. In: Butler PM, Joysey KA (eds) Development, function, and evolution of teeth. Academic, New York, pp 309–339Google Scholar
  80. Kay RF (1981) The nut-crackers – a new theory of the adaptations of the Ramapithecinae. Am J Phys Anthropol 55:141–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kay RF (1984) On the use of anatomical features to infer foraging behavior in extinct primates. In: Rodman PS, Cant JGH (eds) Adaptations for foraging in nonhuman primates: contributions to an organismal biology of prosimians, monkeys and apes. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 21–53Google Scholar
  82. Kay RF (1985) Dental evidence for the diet of Australopithecus. Annu Rev Anthropol 14:315–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kay RF, Covert HH (1984) Anatomy and behavior of extinct primates. In: Chivers DJ, Wood BA, Bilsborough A (eds) Food acquisition and processing in primates. Plenum Press, New York, pp 467–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kay RF, Hiiemae KM (1974) Jaw movement and tooth use in recent and fossil primates. Am J Phys Anthropol 40:227–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kay RF, Hylander WL (1978) The dental structure of mammalian folivores with special reference to primates and Phalangeroidea (Marsupialia). In: Montgomery GG (ed) The biology of arboreal folivores. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, pp 173–192Google Scholar
  86. Kay RF, Ungar PS (1997) Dental evidence for diet in some Miocene catarrhines with comments on the effects of phylogeny on the interpretation of adaptation. In: Begun DR, Ward C, Rose M (eds) Function, phylogeny and fossils: Miocene hominoids and great ape and human origins. Plenum Press, New York, pp 131–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Kelley JJ (1986) Paleobiology of Miocene hominoids. PhD dissertation, Yale UniversityGoogle Scholar
  88. Kelley JJ (1995) Sexual dimorphism in canine shape among extant great apes. Am J Phys Anthropol 96:365–389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kelley J, Anwar M, McCollum M, Ward SC (1995) The anterior dentition of Sivapithecus parvada, with comments on the phylogenetic significance of incisor heteromorphy in Hominoidea. J Hum Evol 28:503–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. King T, Aiello LC, Andrews P (1999) Dental microwear of Griphopithecus alpani. J Hum Evol 36:3–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. King SJ, Arrigo-Nelson SJ, Pochron ST, Semprebon GM, Godfrey LR, Wright PC, Jernvall J (2005) Dental senescence in a long-lived primate links infant survival to rainfall. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:16579–16583PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Kinzey WG (1978) Feeding behavior and molar features in two species of titi monkey. In: Chivers DJ, Herbert J (eds) Recent advances in primatology. Behavior, vol 1. Academic, New York, pp 373–385Google Scholar
  93. Kinzey WG (1984) The dentition of the pygmy chimpanzee, Pan paniscus. In: Susman RL (ed) The pygmy chimpanzee. Plenum Press, New York, pp 65–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Klukkert ZS, Teaford MF, Ungar PS (2012) A dental topographic analysis of chimpanzees. Am J Phys Anthropol 148:276–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Kono RT (2004) Molar enamel thickness and distribution patterns in extant great apes and humans: new insights based on a 3-dimensional whole crown perspective. Anthropol Sci 112:121–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Kono RT, Suwa G (2008) Enamel distribution patterns of extant human and hominoid molars: occlusal versus lateral enamel thickness. Bull Natl Mus Nat Sci D34:1–9Google Scholar
  97. Krueger KL, Ungar PS (2010) Incisor microwear textures of five bioarcheological groups. Int J Osteoarchaeol 20:549–560Google Scholar
  98. Kullmer O, Benazzi S, Fiorenza L, Schulz D, Bacso S, Winzen O (2009) Technical note: occlusal fingerprint analysis: quantification of tooth wear pattern. Am J Phys Anthropol 139:600–605PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Kullmer O, Benazzi S, Schulz D, Gunz P, Kordos L, Begun DR (2013) Dental arch restoration using tooth macrowear patterns with application to Rudapithecus hungaricus, from the Miocene of Rudabánya, Hungary. J Hum Evol 64:151–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Kuroda S (1992) Ecological interspecies relationships between gorillas and chimpanzees in the Ndoki-Nouabale reserve, Northern Congo. In: Itoigawa N, Sugiyama Y, Sackett GP, Thompson RKR (eds) Topics in primatology. Behavior, ecology and conservation, vol 2. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, pp 385–394Google Scholar
  101. Kuykendall KL (1996) Dental development in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): the timing of tooth calcification stages. Am J Phys Anthropol 99:135–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Lambert JE (2007) Seasonality, fallback strategies, and natural selection: a chimpanzee and cercopithecoid model for interpreting the evolution of hominin diet. In: Ungar PS (ed) Evolution of the human diet: the known, the unknown, and the unknowable. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 324–343Google Scholar
  103. Lambert JE, Chapman CA, Wrangham RW, Conklin-Brittain NL (2004) The hardness of cercopithecine foods: implications for the critical function of enamel thickness in exploiting fallback foods. Am J Phys Anthropol 125:363–368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Lavelle CLB (1978) An analysis of molar tooth form. Acta Anat 100:282–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Lee JJ-W, Morris D, Constantino PJ, Lucas PW, Smith TM, Lawn BR (2010) Properties of tooth enamel in great apes. Acta Biomater 6:4560–4565PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Leighton M (1993) Modeling dietary selectivity by Bornean Orangutans – evidence for integration of multiple criteria in fruit selection. Int J Primatol 14:257–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Leutenegger W, Shell B (1987) Variability and sexual dimorphism in canine size of Australopithecus and extant hominoids. J Hum Evol 16:359–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Lockwood CA, Kimbel WH, Lynch JM (2004) Morphometrics and hominoid phylogeny: support for a chimpanzee-human clade and differentiation among great ape subspecies. Proc Natl Acad Sci 101:4356–4360PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Lucas PW (1979) The dental-dietary adaptations of mammals. Neues Jahrb Geolog Paläontologie Mon 8:486–512Google Scholar
  110. Lucas PW (2004) Dental functional morphology: how teeth work. Cambridge University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Lucas PW, Teaford MF (1994) Functional morphology of colobine teeth. In: Davies AG, Oates JF (eds) Colobine monkeys: their ecology, behaviour and evolution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 173–203Google Scholar
  112. Lucas PW, Corlett RT, Luke DA (1986) Postcanine tooth size and diet in anthropoids. Z Morphol Anthropol 76:253–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Lucas PW, Prinz JF, Agrawal KR, Bruce IC (2004) Food texture and its effect on ingestion, mastication and swallowing. J Texture Stud 35:159–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Lucas PW, Constantino P, Wood B, Lawn B (2008) Dental enamel as a dietary indicator in mammals. Bioessays 30:374–385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. M’Kirera F, Ungar PS (2003) Occlusal relief changes with molar wear in Pan troglodytes troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla gorilla. Am J Primatol 60:31–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Maas MC, Dumont ER (1999) Built to last: the structure, function, and evolution of primate dental enamel. Evolut Anthropol 8:133–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Macho GA (1994) Variation in enamel thickness and cusp area within human maxillary molars and its bearing on scaling techniques used for studies of enamel thickness between species. Arch Oral Biol 39:783–792PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Macho GA, Berner ME (1993) Enamel thickness of human maxillary molars reconsidered. Am J Phys Anthropol 92:189–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Macho GA, Thackeray JF (1992) Computer tomography and enamel thickness of maxillary molars of Plio-Pleistocene hominids from Sterkfontein, Swartkrans and Kromdraai (South Africa): an exploratory study. Am J Phys Anthropol 89:133–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. MacKinnon J (1977) A comparative ecology of Asian apes. Primates 18:747–772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Mahler PE (1973) Metric variation in the Pongid dentition. PhD dissertation, University of MichiganGoogle Scholar
  122. Maier W (1977) Die Evolution der bilophodonten Molaren der Cercopithecoidea. Z Morphol Anthropol 68:26–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Maier W (1984) Tooth morphology and dietary specialization. In: Chivers DJ, Wood BA, Bilsborough A (eds) Food acquisition and processing in primates. Plenum Press, New York, pp 303–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Maier W, Schneck G (1981) Konstruktionsmorphologische Untersuchungen am Gebiss der hominoiden Primaten. Z. Morphol. Anthropol. 72:127–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Marshall AJ, Wrangham RW (2007) Evolutionary consequences of fallback foods. Int J Primatol 28:1219–1235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Martin LB (1983) The relationships of the later Miocene Hominoidea. PhD thesis, University of LondonGoogle Scholar
  127. Martin LB (1985) Significance of enamel thickness in hominoid evolution. Nature 314:260–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Martin LB, Boyde A, Grine FE (1988) Enamel structure in primates – a review of scanning electron microscope studies. Scanning Microsc 2:1503–1526PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Martin LB, Olejniczak AJ, Maas MC (2003) Enamel thickness and structure in pitheciin primates, with comments on dietary adaptations of the Middle Miocene hominoid Kenyapithecus. J Hum Evol 45:351–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Massler M, Schour I (1946) The appositional life span of the enamel and dentine-forming cells. J Dent Res 25:145–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Merceron G, deBonis L, Viriot L, Blondel C (2005) A new method of dental microwear analysis: application to extant primates and Ouranopithecus macedoniensis (Late Miocene of Greece). Palaios 20:551–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Merceron G, Escarguel G, Angibault J-M, Verheyden-Tixier H (2010) Can dental microwear textures record inter-individual dietary variations? PLoS One 5(3):e9542PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Milton KM (2002) Hunter-gatherer diets: wild foods signal relief from diseases of affluence. In: Ungar PS, Teaford MF (eds) Human diet: its origin and evolution. Bergen and Garvey, Westport, pp 111–122Google Scholar
  134. Molnar S, Gantt DG (1977) Functional implications of primate enamel thickness. Am J Phys Anthropol 46:447–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Nishihara T (1992) A preliminary report on the feeding habits of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in the Ndoki Forest, Northern Congo. In: Itoigawa N, Sugiyama Y, Sackett GP, Thompson RKR (eds) Topics in primatology. Behavior, ecology and conservation, vol 2. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, pp 225–240Google Scholar
  136. Nissen HW, Riesen AH (1964) The eruption of the permanent dentition of chimpanzees. Am J Phys Anthropol 22:285–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Olejniczak AJ, Tafforeau P, Feeney RNM, Martin LB (2008) Three-dimensional primate molar enamel thickness. J Hum Evol 54:187–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Osborn JW, Lumsden AGS (1978) An alternative to ‘thegosis’ and a re-examination of the ways in which mammalian molars work. Neues Jahrb Geolog Paläontologie Abh 156:371–392Google Scholar
  139. Owen R (1840) Odontography. H. Baillière LondonGoogle Scholar
  140. Pfretzschner HU (1986) Structural reinforcement and crack propagation in enamel. In: Russell DE, Santoro JP, Sigoneau-Russell D (eds) Teeth revisited: proceedings of the VIIth international symposium on dental morphology. Museum of Natural History, Paris, pp 133–143Google Scholar
  141. Pilbeam DR (1969) Tertiary Pongidae of East Africa: evolutionary relationships and taxonomy. Peabody Museum Nat Hist Yale Univ Bull 31:1–185Google Scholar
  142. Pilbeam DR, Gould SJ (1974) Size and scaling in human evolution. Science 186:892–901PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Pilbrow VC (2003) Dental variation in African apes with implications for understanding patterns of variation in species of fossil apes. PhD dissertation, New York UniversityGoogle Scholar
  144. Pilbrow V (2006) Lingual incisor traits in modern hominoids and an assessment of their utility for fossil hominoid taxonomy. Am J Phys Anthropol 129:323–338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Plavcan JM (1990) Sexual dimorphism in the dentition of extant anthropoid primates. PhD dissertation, Duke UniversityGoogle Scholar
  146. Plavcan JM (1993) Canine size and shape in male anthropoid primates. Am J Phys Anthropol 92:201–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Plavcan JM, Ruff CB (2008) Canine size, shape, and bending strength in primates and carnivores. Am J Phys Anthropol 136:65–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Plavcan JM, van Schaik CP (1993) Canine dimorphism. Evolut Anthropol 2:208–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Plavcan JM, van Schaik CP (1997) Interpreting hominid behavior on the basis of sexual dimorphism. J Hum Evol 32:345–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Plavcan JM, van Schaik CP, Kappeler PM (1995) Competition, coalitions and canine size in primates. J Hum Evol 28:245–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Puech P-F, Prone A (1979) Reproduction expérimentale des processus d’usure dentaire par abrasion: implications paléoecologique chez l’Homme fossile. C R Acad Sci (Paris) 289:895–898Google Scholar
  152. Rabenold D, Pearson OM (2011) Abrasive, silica phytoliths and the evolution of thick molar enamel in primates, with implications for the diet of Paranthropus boisei. PLoS ONE 6:e28379PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Reid DJ, Schwartz GT, Dean C, Chandrasekera MS (1998) A histological reconstruction of dental development in the common chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes. J Hum Evol 35:427–448PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Remis MJ (1997) Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) as seasonal frugivores: use of variable resources. Am J Primatol 43:87–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Rensberger JM (1973) An occlusion model for mastication and dental wear in herbivorous mammals. J Paleontol 47:515–528Google Scholar
  156. Rensberger JM (1978) Scanning electron microscopy of wear and occlusal events in some small herbivores. In: Butler PM, Joysey KA (eds) Development, function and evolution of teeth. Academic, New York, pp 415–438Google Scholar
  157. Rensberger JM (1993) Adaptation of enamel microstructure to differences in stress intensity in the Eocene perissodactyl Hyracotherium. In: Kobayashi I, Mutvei H, Sahni A (eds) Structure, formation, and evolution of fossil hard tissues. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, pp 131–145Google Scholar
  158. Rensberger JM (1997) Mechanical adaptation in enamel. In: von Koenigswald W, Sanders PM (eds) Tooth enamel microstructure. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 237–258Google Scholar
  159. Rensberger JM (2000) Pathways to functional differentiation in mammalian enamel. In: Teaford MF, Smith MM, Ferguson MWJ (eds) Development, function and evolution of teeth. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 252–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Robinson BW, Wilson DS (1998) Optimal foraging, specialization, and a solution to Liem’s paradox. Am Nat 151:223–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Rodman PS (1977) Feeding behaviour of orangutans of the Kutai Nature Reserve, East Kalimantan. In: Clutton-Brock TH (ed) Primate ecology: studies of feeding and ranging behaviour in lemurs, monkeys and apes. Academic, London, pp 383–413Google Scholar
  162. Rogers ME, Maisels F, Williamson EA, Tutin CE, Fernandez M (1992) Nutritional aspects of gorilla food choice in the Lopé Reserve, Gabon. In: Itoigawa N, Sugiyama Y, Sackett GP, Thompson RKR (eds) Topics in primatology. Behavior, ecology and conservation, vol 2. University of Tokyo, Tokyo, pp 267–281Google Scholar
  163. Rose JC, Ungar PS (1998) Gross dental wear and dental microwear in historical perspective. In: Alt KW, Rösing FW, Teschler-Nicola M (eds) Dental anthropology: fundamentals, limits, prospects. Gustav-Fischer, Stuttgart, pp 349–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Rosenberger AL, Kinzey WG (1976) Functional patterns of molar occlusion in platyrrhine primates. Am J Phys Anthropol 45:281–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Ross CF (2000) Into the light: the origin of anthropoidea. Annu Rev Anthropol 29:147–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Ryan AS (1979) A preliminary scanning electron microscope examination of wear striation direction on primate teeth. J Dent Res 58:525–530PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Salazar-Ciudad I, Jernvall J, Newman SA (2003) Mechanisms of pattern formation in development and evolution. Development 130:2027–2037PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Schour I, Hoffman MM (1939) Studies in tooth development II. The rate of apposition of enamel and dentine in man and other animals. J Dent Res 18:91–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Schultz AH (1935) Eruption and decay of permanent teeth in primates. Am J Phys Anthropol 19:489–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Schultz AH (1960) Age changes in primates and their modification in man. In: Tanner JM (ed) Human growth. Pergamon, Oxford, pp 1–20Google Scholar
  171. Schuman EL, Brace CL (1955) Metric and morphologic variations in the dentition of the Liberian chimpanzee. Hum Biol 26:239–268Google Scholar
  172. Schwartz GT (2000) Taxonomic and functional aspects of the patterning of enamel thickness distribution in extant large-bodied hominoids. Am J Phys Anthropol 111:221–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Scott EC (1979) Dental wear scoring technique. Am J Phys Anthropol 51:213–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Scott RS, Bergstrom TS, Brown CA, Grine FE, Teaford MF, Walker A, Ungar PS (2005) Dental microwear texture analysis reflects diets of living primates and fossil hominins. Nature 436:693–695PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Scott RS, Ungar PS, Bergstrom TS, Brown CA, Childs BE, Teaford MF, Walker A (2006) Dental microwear texture analysis: technical considerations. J Hum Evol 51:339–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Scott RS, Teaford MF, Ungar PS (2012) Dental microwear texture and anthropoid diets. Am J Phys Anthropol 147:551–579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Seligsohn D, Szalay FS (1978) Relationship between natural selection and dental morphology: tooth function and diet in Lepilemur and Hapalemur. In: Butler PM, Joysey KA (eds) Development, function and evolution of teeth. Academic, New York, pp 289–307Google Scholar
  178. Sheine WS, Kay RF (1977) An analysis of chewed food particle size and its relationship to molar structure in the primates Cheirogaleus medius and Galago senegalensis and the insectivoran Tupaia glis. Am J Phys Anthropol 47:15–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Shellis RP (1998) Utilisation of periodic markings in enamel to obtain information about tooth growth. J Hum Evol 35:427–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Shellis RP, Poole DFG (1977) The calcified dental tissues of primates. In: Lavelle LLB, Shellis RP, Poole DFG (eds) Evolutionary changes to the primate skull and dentition. Thomas, Springfield, pp 197–279Google Scholar
  181. Shellis RP, Beynon AD, Reid DJ, Hiiemae KM (1998) Variations in molar enamel thickness among primates. J Hum Evol 35:507–522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Simpson GG (1926) Mesozoic Mammalia IV. The multituberculates as living animals. Am J Sci 211:228–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Simpson GG (1933) Paleobiology of Jurassic mammals. Paleobiologica 5:127–158Google Scholar
  184. Simpson SW, Lovejoy CO, Meindl RS (1992) Relative dental development in hominoids and its failure to predict somatic growth velocity. Am J Phys Anthropol 86:29–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Smith BH (1989) Dental development as a measure of life history in primates. Evolution 43:683–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Smith BH (1991) Standards of human tooth formation and dental age assessment. In: Kelley MA, Larsen CS (eds) Advances in dental anthropology. Wiley-Liss, New York, pp 143–168Google Scholar
  187. Smith BH (1994) Sequence of emergence of the permanent teeth in Macaca, Pan, Homo, and Australopithecus: its evolutionary significance. Am J Hum Biol 6:61–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Smith E (1999) A functional analysis of molar morphometrics in living and fossil hominoids. PhD dissertation, University of TorontoGoogle Scholar
  189. Smith RJ (2009) Use and misuse of the reduced major axis for line-fitting. Am J Phys Anthropol 140:476–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Smith TM, Olejniczak AJ, Martin LB, Reid DJ (2005) Variation in hominoid molar enamel thickness. J Hum Evol 48:575–592PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Smith TM, Tafforeau P, Reid DJ, Pouech J, Lazzari V, Zermeno JP, Guatelli-Steinberg D, Olejniczak AJ, Hoffman A, Radovic J, Makaremi M, Toussaint M, Stringer C, Hublin J-J (2010) Dental evidence for ontogenetic differences between modern humans and Neanderthals. Proc Natl Acad Sci 107:20923–20928PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Smith TM, Olejniczak AJ, Zermeno JP, Tafforeau P, Skinner MM, Hoffmann A, Radovcic J, Toussaint M, Kruszynski R, Menter C, Moggi-Cecchi J, Glasmacher UA, Kullmer O, Schrenk F, Stringer C, Hublin J-J (2012) Variation in enamel thickness within the genus Homo. J Hum Evol 62:395–411PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Spears IR, Crompton RH (1996) The mechanical significance of the occlusal geometry of great ape molars in food breakdown. J Hum Evol 31:517–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Stanford CB, Nkurunungi JB (2003) Behavioral ecology of sympatric chimpanzees and gorillas in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda: Diet. Int J Primatol 24:901–918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Strait SG (1993) Molar morphology and good texture among small-bodied insectivorous mammals. J Mammal 74:391–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Strait DS, Grine FE (2004) Inferring hominoid and early hominid phylogeny using craniodental characters: the role of fossil taxa. J Hum Evol 47:399–452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Strait DS, Weber GW, Neubauer S, Chalk J, Richmond BG, Lucas PW, Spencer MA, Schrein C, Dechow PC, Ross CF, Grosse IR, Wright BW, Constantino P, Wood BA, Lawn B, Hylander WL, Wang Q, Byron C, Slice DE, Smith AL (2009) The feeding biomechanics and dietary ecology of Australopithecus africanus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:2124–2129PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Strait DR, Weber GW, Constantino P, Lucas PW, Richmond BG, Spencer MA, Dechow PC, Ross CF, Grosse IR, Wright BW, Wood BA, Wang Q, Byron C, Slice DE (2012) Microwear, mechanics and feeding adaptations of Australopithecus africanus. J Hum Evol 62:165–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Strait DR, Constantino P, Lucas PW, Richmond BG, Spencer MA, Dechow PC, Ross CF, Grosse I, Wright BW, Wood BA, Weber GW, Wang Q, Byron C, Slice DE, Chalk J, Smith AL, Smith LC, Wood S, Berthaume M, Benazzi S, Dzialo C, Tamvada K, Ledogar JA (2013) Viewpoints: diet and dietary adaptations in early hominins: the hard food perspective. Am J Phys Anthropol 151:339–355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Swindler DR (1976) Dentition of living primates. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  201. Swindler DR (1985) Nonhuman primate dental development and its relationship to human dental development. In: Watts ES (ed) Nonhuman primate models for human growth and development. Alan R. Liss, New York, pp 67–94Google Scholar
  202. Tafforeau P, Smith TM (2008) Nondestructive imaging of hominoid dental microstructure using phase contrast X-ray synchrotron microtomography. J Hum Evol 54:272–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Tafforeau P, Zermeon JP, Smith TM (2012) Tracking cellular-level enamel growth and structure in 4D with synchrotron imaging. J Hum Evol 62:424–428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Teaford MF (1983) Differences in molar wear gradient between adult macaques and langurs. Int J Primatol 4:427–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Teaford MF (1988) A review of dental microwear and diet in modern mammals. Scanning Microsc 2:1149–1166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Teaford MF (1994) Dental microwear and dental function. Evolut Anthropol 3:17–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Teaford MF (2007) What do we know and not know about dental microwear and diet? In: Ungar PS (ed) Evolution of the human diet: the known, the unknown and the unknowable. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 106–131Google Scholar
  208. Teaford MF, Glander KE (1996) Dental microwear and diet in a wild population of mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata). In: Norconk MA, Rosenberger AL, Garber PA (eds) Adaptive radiations of neotropical primates. Plenum Press, New York, pp 433–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Teaford MF, Walker AC (1984) Quantitative differences in dental microwear between primate species with different diets and a comment on the presumed diet of Sivapithecus. Am J Phys Anthropol 64:191–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Teaford MF, Maas MC, Simons EL (1996) Dental microwear and microstructure in early Oligocene Fayum primates: implications for diet. Am J Phys Anthropol 101:527–543PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Teaford MF, Ungar PS, Grine FE (2013) Dental microwear and paleoecology. In: Sponheimer M, Lee-Thorp JA, Reed KE, Ungar P (eds) Early hominin paleoecology. University of Colorado Press, Boulder, pp 251–280Google Scholar
  212. Tutin CEG, Fernandez M (1993) Composition of the diet of chimpanzees and comparisons with that of sympatric lowland gorillas in the Lope Reserve, Gabon. Am J Primatol 30:195–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Tutin CEG, Fernandez M, Rogers ME, Williamson EA, McGrew WC (1991) Foraging profiles of sympatric lowland gorillas and chimpanzees in the Lope Reserve, Gabon. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 334:179–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Tutin CEG, Ham RM, White LJT, Harrison MJS (1997) The primate community of the Lope Reserve, Gabon: diets, responses to fruit scarcity, and effects on biomass. Am J Primatol 42:1–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Tyson E (1699) Orang-Outang: or the anatomy of a pygmy compared with that of a monkey, an ape, and a man. T. Bennet and D. Brown, LondonGoogle Scholar
  216. Uchida A (1992) Intra-species variation among the great apes: implications for taxonomy and fossil hominoids. PhD dissertation, Harvard UniversityGoogle Scholar
  217. Uchida A (1996) Craniodental variation among the great apes. Peabody Museum bulletin, vol 4. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  218. Uchida A (1998) Variation in tooth morphology of Gorilla gorilla. J Hum Evol 34:55–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Ungar PS (1996) Relationship of incisor size to diet and anterior tooth use in sympatric Sumatran Anthropoids. Am J Primatol 38:145–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Ungar PS (2002) Reconstructing the diets of fossil primates. In: Plavcan JM, Kay RF, Jungers WL, van Schaik CP (eds) Reconstructing behavior in the primate fossil record. Plenum Press, New York, pp 261–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Ungar P (2004) Dental topography and diets of Australopithecus afarensis and early Homo. J Hum Evol 46:605–622PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Ungar PS (2005) Dental evidence for the diets of fossil primates from Rudabánya, northeastern Hungary with comments on extant primate analogs and “noncompetitive” sympatry. Palaeontogr Ital 90:97–111Google Scholar
  223. Ungar PS (2008) Materials science: strong teeth, strong seeds. Nature 452:703–705PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Ungar PS (2014) Dental allometry in mammals: a retrospective. Ann Zool Cennici 51:177–187Google Scholar
  225. Ungar PS, M’Kirera F (2003) A solution to the worn tooth conundrum in primate functional anatomy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:3874–3877PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Ungar PS, Taylor SR (2005) Dental topographic analysis: tooth wear and function. Am J Phys Anthropol 126 (S40): 210Google Scholar
  227. Ungar PS, Williamson M (2000) Exploring the effects of tooth wear on functional morphology: a preliminary study using dental topographic analysis. Palaeontol Electron 3:18Google Scholar
  228. Ungar PS, Brown CA, Bergstrom TS, Walker AC (2003) Quantification of dental microwear by tandem scanning confocal microscopy and scale-sensitive fractal analyses. Scanning 25:185–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Ungar P, Teaford M, Kay R (2004) Molar microwear and shearing crest development in Miocene Catarrhines. Anthropologie 42:21–35Google Scholar
  230. Ungar PS, Grine FE, Teaford MF (2008) Dental microwear and diet of the Plio-Pleistocene hominin Paranthropus boisei. PLoS One 3(4):e2044PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. von Koenigswald W, Clemens WA (1992) Levels of complexity in the microstructure of mammalian enamel and their application in studies of systematics. Scanning Microsc 6:195–218Google Scholar
  232. von Koenigswald W, Rensberger JM, Pfretzschner HU (1987) Changes in the tooth enamel of early Paleocene mammals allowing increased diet diversity. Nature 328:150–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Vrba ES, Grine FE (1978) Australopithecine enamel prism patterns. Science 202:890–892PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Walker P, Murray P (1975) An assessment of masticatory efficiency in a series of anthropoid primates with special reference to the Colobinae and Cercopithecinae. In: Tuttle RH (ed) Primate functional morphology and evolution. Mouton, The Hague, pp 135–150Google Scholar
  235. Walker AC, Hoeck HN, Perez L (1978) Microwear of mammalian teeth as an indicator of diet. Science 201:908–910PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Welsch U (1967) Tooth wear in living pongids. J Dent Res 46:989–992PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Whittaker DK, Parker JH, Jenkins C (1982) Tooth attrition and continuing eruption in a Romano-British population. Arch Oral Biol 27:405–409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Whittaker DK, Molleson T, Daniel AT, Williams JT, Rose P, Resteghini R (1985) Quantitative assessment of tooth wear, alveolar crest height and continuing eruption in a Romano-British population. Arch Oral Biol 30:493–501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Williamson EA, Tutin CEG, Rogers ME, Fernandez M (1990) Composition of the diet of lowland gorillas at Lope in Gabon. Am J Primatol 21:265–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Winkler LA (1995) A comparison of radiographic and anatomical evidence of tooth development in infant apes. Folia Primatol 65:1–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Wolpoff MH (1971) Interstitial wear. Am J Phys Anthropol 34:205–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Wood BA, Abbott SA (1983) Analysis of the dental morphology of Plio-Pleistocene hominids. I. Mandibular molars, crown area measurements and morphological traits. J Anat 136:197–219PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Wood BA, Engelman CA (1988) Analysis of the dental morphology of Plio-Pleistocene hominids. IV. Maxillary postcanine tooth morphology. J Anat 151:1–35Google Scholar
  244. Wood BA, Uytterschaut H (1987) Analysis of dental morphology of Plio-Pleistocene hominids. III. Mandibular premolar crowns. J Anat 154:121–156PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Wood BA, Abbott SA, Graham SH (1983) Analysis of the dental morphology of Plio-Pleistocene Hominids. 2. Mandibular molars study of cusp areas, fissure pattern and cross-sectional shape of the crown. J Anat 137:287–314PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Wood BA, Li Y, Willoughby C (1991) Intraspecific variation and sexual dimorphism in cranial and dental variables among higher primates and their bearing on the hominid fossil record. J Anat 174:185–205PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Xirotiris NI, Henke W (1981) Enamel prism patterns of European hominoids and their phylogenetical aspects. In: Chiarelli AB, Corruccini RS (eds) Primate evolutionary biology. Springer, Berlin, pp 109–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Yamashita N (1998) Functional dental correlates of food properties in five Malagasy lemur species. Am J Phys Anthropol 106:169–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Zuccotti LF, Williamson MD, Limp WF, Ungar PS (1998) Technical note: modeling primate occlusal topography using geographic information systems technology. Am J Phys Anthropol 107:137–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Zuckerman S (1928) Age changes in the chimpanzee, with special reference to growth of the brain, eruption of the teeth and estimation of age: with a note on the Taung ape. Proc Zool Soc Lond 1928:1–42Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physical TherapyHigh Point University, School of Health SciencesHigh PointUSA
  2. 2.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of ArkansasFayettevilleUSA

Personalised recommendations