Verification of Medium- to Long-Range Hydrological Forecasts

  • Luc PerreaultEmail author
  • Jocelyn GaudetEmail author
  • Louis DelormeEmail author
  • Simon ChatelainEmail author
Reference work entry


Hydrological forecasting is crucial for hydropower production and risk management related to extreme events. Since uncertainty cannot be eliminated from such a process, forecasts should be probabilistic in nature, taking the form of probability distributions over future events. However, verification tools adapted to probabilistic hydrological forecasting have only been recently considered. How can such forecasts be verified accurately? In this chapter a simple theoretical framework proposed by Gneiting et al. (2007) is employed to provide a formal guidance to verify probabilistic forecasts. Some strategies and scoring rules used to measure the performance of hydrological forecasting systems, namely, Hydro-Québec, are presented. Monte Carlo simulation experiments and applications to a real archive of operational medium-range forecasts are also presented. An experiment is finally performed to evaluate long-range hydrological forecasts in a decisional perspective, by employing hydrological forecasts in a stochastic midterm planning model designed for optimizing electricity production. Future research perspectives and operational challenges on diagnostic approaches for hydrological probabilistic forecasts are given.


Probabilistic forecasting Hydrological forecasts Proper scoring rules Skill scores Estimation Multivariate verification Energy score Economic value of forecasts 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IREQ Hydro-Québec Research InstituteVarennesCanada
  2. 2.McGill UniversityMontrealCanada

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