The Family Pseudoalteromonadaceae

  • Elena P. IvanovaEmail author
  • Hooi Jun Ng
  • Hayden K. Webb
Reference work entry


The family Pseudoalteromonadaceae (class Gammaproteobacteria, order Alteromonadales) consists of three genera: the type genus Pseudoalteromonas, containing 37 species; the genus Algicola, containing two species; and the genus Psychrosphaera with one species. All species are Gram-negative rods, with the exception of Psychrosphaera saromensis which is a coccus. Historically, many species of Pseudoalteromonas were assigned to the genus Alteromonas. Similarly, both Algicola bacteriolytica and A. sagamiensis were reclassified from Pseudoalteromonas to form a separate genus. Many species of this family produce a variety of primary and secondary metabolites including hydrolytic enzymes, cyclic peptides, proteins and protein inhibitors, pigments, exopolymers, phenolic and pyrrole-containing alkaloids, and unusual brominated compounds with antibacterial and antiviral properties. Due to their versatile metabolic capacities, members of this family are highly adaptable to dissimilar ecological habitats and play important ecological roles in marine environments.


Extracellular Polymeric Substance Isovaleric Acid Fungal Keratitis Psychrophilic Bacterium Agarase Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Akagawa-Matsushita M, Matsuo M, Koga Y, Yamasato K (1992) Alteromonas atlantica sp. nov. and Alteromonas carrageenovora sp. nov., bacteria that decompose algal polysaccharides. Int J Syst Bacteriol 42:621–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akagawa-Matsushita M, Koga Y, Yamasato K (1993) DNA relatedness among nonpigmented species of Alteromonas and synonymy of Alteromonas haloplanktis (ZoBell and Upham 1944) Reichelt and Baumann 1973 and Alteromonas tetraodonis Simidu et al. 1990. Int J Syst Bacteriol 43:500–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al Khudary R, Stosser NI, Qoura F, Antranikian G (2008) Pseudoalteromonas arctica sp. nov., an aerobic, psychrotolerant, marine bacterium isolated from Spitzbergen. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58:2018–2024PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Al Khudary R, Venkatachalam R, Katzer M, Elleuche S, Antranikian G (2010) A cold-adapted esterase of a novel marine isolate, Pseudoalteromonas arctica: gene cloning, enzyme purification and characterization. Extremophiles 14:273–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Albino A, Marco S, Di Maro A, Chambery A, Masullo M, De Vendittis E (2012) Characterization of a cold-adapted glutathione synthetase from the psychrophile Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis. Mol Biosyst 8:2405–2414PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bai Y, Zhang P, Chen G, Cao J, Huang T, Chen K (2012) Macrophage immunomodulatory activity of extracellular polysaccharide (PEP) of Antarctic bacterium Pseudoaltermonas sp.S-5. Int Immunopharmacol 12:611–617PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baumann P, Baumann L, Bowditch RD, Bearman B (1984) Taxonomy of Alteromonas: A. nigrifaciens sp. nov. nom. rev.; A. macleodii; and A. haloplanktis. Int J Syst Bacteriol 34:145–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bowman JP (1998) Pseudoalteromonas prydzensis sp. nov., a psychrotrophic, halotolerant bacterium from Antarctic sea ice. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48:1037–1041PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bowman JP (2007) Bioactive compound synthetic capacity and ecological significance of marine bacterial genus Pseudoalteromonas. Mar Drugs 5:220–241PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Bozal N, Tudela E, Rosselló-Mora R, Lalucat J, Guinea J (1997) Pseudoalteromonas antarctica sp. nov., isolated from an Antarctic coastal environment. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47:345–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chan KY, Baumann L, Garza MM, Baumann P (1978) Two new species of Alteromonas: Alteromonas espejiana and Alteromonas undina. Int J Syst Bacteriol 28:217–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen X-L, Xie B-B, Lu J-T, He H-L, Zhang Y (2007) A novel type of subtilase from the psychrotolerant bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913: catalytic and structural properties of deseasin MCP-01. Microbiology 153:2116–2125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen H, Zheng Z, Chen P, Wu XG, Zhao G (2012) Inhibitory effect of extracellular polysaccharide EPS-II from Pseudoalteromonas on Candida adhesion to cornea in vitro. Biomed Environ Sci 25:210–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Dieckmann R, Graeber I, Kaesler I, Szewzyk U, von Dohren H (2005) Rapid screening and dereplication of bacterial isolates from marine sponges of the sula ridge by intact-cell-MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (ICM-MS). Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 67:539–548PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Egan S, Holmström C, Kjelleberg S (2001) Pseudoalteromonas ulvae sp. nov., a bacterium with antifouling activities isolated from the surface of a marine alga. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:1499–1504PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Emami K, Askari V, Ullrich M, Mohinudeen K, Anil AC, Khandeparker L, Burgess JG, Mesbahi E (2012) Characterization of bacteria in ballast water using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. PLoS One 7:e38515PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Enger Ø, Nygaard H, Solberg M, Schei G, Nielsen J, Dundas I (1987) Characterization of Alteromonas denitrificans sp. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 37:416–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Evans FF, Raftery MJ, Egan S, Kjelleberg S (2007) Profiling the secretome of the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicata using amine-specific isobaric tagging (iTRAQ). J Proteome Res 6:967–975PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gauthier MJ (1976) Alteromonas rubra sp. nov., a new marine antibiotic producing bacterium. Int J Syst Bacteriol 26:459–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gauthier MJ (1977) Alteromonas citrea, a new Gram-negative, yellow pigmented species from seawater. Int J Syst Bacteriol 27:349–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gauthier MJ (1982) Validation of the name Alteromonas luteoviolacea. Int J Syst Bacteriol 32:82–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gauthier MJ, Breittmayer VA (1979) A new antibiotic-producing bacterium from seawater: Alteromonas aurantia sp. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 29:366–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gauthier G, Gauthier M, Christen R (1995) Phylogenetic analysis of the genera Alteromonas, Shewanella, and Moritella using genes coding for the small-subunit rRNA sequences and division of the genus Alteromonas into two genera, Alteromonas (emended) and Pseudoalteromonas gen. nov., and proposal of twelve new species combinations. Int J Syst Bacteriol 45:755–761PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Georlette D, Blaise V, Collins T, D’Amico S, Gratia E, Hoyoux A, Marx JC, Sonan G, Feller G, Gerday C (2004) Some like it cold: biocatalysis at low temperatures. FEMS Microbiol Rev 28:25–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hayashida-Soiza G, Uchida A, Mori N, Kuwahara Y, Ishida Y (2008) Purification and characterization of antibacterial substances produced by a marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis strain. J Appl Microbiol 105:1672–1677PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. He H-L, Guo J, Chen X-L, Xie B-B, Zhang X-Y, Yu Y, Chen B, Zhou B-C, Zhang Y-Z (2012) Structural and functional characterization of mature forms of metalloprotease E495 from Arctic sea-ice bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM495. PLoS One 7:e35442PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Holmström C, Kjelleberg S (1999) Marine Pseudoalteromonas species are associated with higher organisms and produce biologically active extracellular agents. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 30:285–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Holmström C, James S, Neilan BA, White DC, Kjelleberg S (1998) Pseudoalteromonas tunicata sp. nov., a bacterium that produces antifouling agents. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48:1205–1212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Isnansetyo A, Kamei Y (2003) Pseudoalteromonas phenolica sp. nov., a novel marine bacterium that produces phenolic anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus substances. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53:583–588PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ivanova EP, Kiprianova EA, Mikhailov VV, Levanova GF, Garagulya AD, Gorshkova NM, Yumoto N, Yoshikawa S (1996a) Characterization and identification of marine Alteromonas nigrifaciens strains and emendation of the description. Int J Syst Bacteriol 46:223–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ivanova EP, Mikhailov VV, Kiprianova EA, Levanova GF, Garagulya AG, Frolova GM, Svetashev VI (1996b) Alteromonas elyakovii sp. nov., a novel bacterium isolated from marine molluscs. Biol Morya 22:231–237Google Scholar
  32. Ivanova EP, Romanenko LA, Matté MH, Matté GR, Lysenko AM, Simidu U, Kita-Tsukamoto K, Sawabe T, Vysotskii MV, Frolova GM, Mikhailov V, Christen R, Colwell RR (2001) Retrieval of the species Alteromonas tetraodonis Simidu et al. 1990 as Pseudoalteromonas tetraodonis comb. nov. and emendation of description. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:1071–1078PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ivanova EP, Sawabe T, Alexeeva YV, Lysenko AM, Gorshkova NM, Hayashi K, Zukova NV, Christen R, Mikhailov VV (2002a) Pseudoalteromonas issachenkonii sp. nov., a bacterium that degrades the thallus of the brown alga Fucus evanescens. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:229–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Ivanova EP, Sawabe T, Lysenko AM, Gorshkova NM, Hayashi K, Zhukova NV, Nicolau DV, Christen R, Mikhailov VV (2002b) Pseudoalteromonas translucida sp. nov. and Pseudoalteromonas paragorgicola sp. nov., and emended description of the genus. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:1759–1766PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ivanova EP, Sawabe T, Lysenko AM, Gorshkova NM, Svetashev VI, Nicolau DV, Yumoto N, Taguchi T, Yoshikawa S, Christen R, Mikhailov VV (2002c) Pseudoalteromonas ruthenica sp. nov., isolated from marine invertebrates. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:235–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Ivanova EP, Shevchenko LS, Sawabe T, Lysenko AM, Svetashev VI, Gorshkova NM, Satomi M, Christen R, Mikhailov VV (2002d) Pseudoalteromonas maricaloris sp. nov., isolated from an Australian sponge, and reclassification of [Pseudoalteromonas aurantia] NCIMB 2033 as Pseudoalteromonas flavipulchra sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:263–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Ivanova EP, Flavier S, Christen R (2004a) Phylogenetic relationships among marine Alteromonas-like proteobacteria: emended description of the family Alteromonadaceae and proposal of Pseudoalteromonadaceae fam. nov., Colwelliaceae fam. nov., Shewanellaceae fam. nov., Moritellaceae fam. nov., Ferrimonadaceae fam. nov., Idiomarinaceae fam. nov. and Psychromonadaceae. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:1773–1788PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ivanova EP, Gorshkova NM, Zhukova NV, Lysenko AM, Zelepuga EA, Prokof'eva NG, Mikhailov VV, Nicolau DV, Christen R (2004b) Characterization of Pseudoalteromonas distincta-like sea-water isolates and description of Pseudoalteromonas aliena sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:1431–1437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kalinovskaya NI, Ivanova EP, Alexeeva YV, Gorshkova NM, Kuznetsova TA, Dmitrenok AS, Nicolau DV (2004) Low-molecular-weight, biologically active compounds from marine Pseudoalteromonas species. Curr Microbiol 48:441–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kim D, Park YK, Lee JS, Kim JF, Jeong H, Kim BS, Lee CH (2006) Analysis of a prodigiosin biosynthetic gene cluster from the marine bacterium Hahella chejuensis KCTC 2396. J Microbiol Biotechnol 16:1912–1918Google Scholar
  41. Kobayashi T, Imada C, Hiraishi A, Tsujibo H, Miyamoto K, Inamori Y, Hamada N, Watanabe E (2003) Pseudoalteromonas sagamiensis sp. nov., a marine bacterium that produces protease inhibitors. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53:1807–1811PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kodama K, Shiozawa H, Ishii A (1993) Alteromonas rava sp. nov., a marine bacterium that produces a new antibiotic, thiomarinol. Annu Rep Sankyo Res Lab 45:131–136Google Scholar
  43. Lau SCK, Tsoi MMY, Li X, Dobretsov S, Plakhotnikova Y, Wong P-K, Qian P-Y (2005) Pseudoalteromonas spongiae sp. nov., a novel member of the γ-Proteobacteria isolated from the sponge Mycale adhaerens in Hong Kong waters. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55:1593–1596PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lee JV, Gibson DM, Shewan JM (1977) A numerical taxonomic study of some Pseudomonas-like marine bacteria. J Gen Microbiol 98:439–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lu M, Wang S, Fang Y, Li H, Liu S, Liu H (2010) Cloning, expression, purification, and characterization of cold-adapted α-amylase from Pseudoalteromonas arctica GS230. Protein J 29:591–597PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Matsuyama H, Minami H, Kasahara H, Kato Y, Murayama M, Yumoto I (2013) Pseudoalteromonas arabiensis sp. nov., a marine polysaccharide-producing bacterium. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 63:1805–1809PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Montaner B, Pérez-Tomás R (2001) Prodigiosin-induced apoptosis in human colon cancer cells. Life Sci 68:2025–2036PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Murphy AC, Fukuda D, Song Z, Hothersall J, Cox RJ, Willis CL, Thomas CM, Simpson TJ (2011) Engineered thiomarinol antibiotics active against MRSA are generated by mutagenesis and mutasynthesis of Pseudoalteromonas SANK73390. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 50:3271–3274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nam Y-D, Chang H-W, Park JR, Kwon H-Y, Quan Z-X, Park Y–H, Lee J-S, Yoon J–H, Bae J-W (2007) Pseudoalteromonas marina sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from tidal flats of the Yellow Sea, and reclassification of Pseudoalteromonas sagamiensis as Algicola sagamiensis comb. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57:12–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Oh YH, Jung C, Lee J (2011) Isolation and characterization of a novel agarase-producing Pseudoalteromonas spp. bacterium from the guts of spiny turban shells. J Microbiol Biotechnol 21:818–821PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Park S, Yoshizawa S, Hamasaki K, Kogure K, Yokota A (2010) Psychrosphaera saromensis gen. nov., sp. nov., within the family Pseudoalteromonadaceae, isolated from Lake Saroma, Japan. J Gen Appl Microbiol 56:475–480PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pinkerton DM, Banwell MG, Garson MJ, Kumar N, de Moraes MO, Cavalcanti BC, Barros FWA, Pessoa C (2010) Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of synthetically derived tambjamines C and E–J, BE-18591, and a related alkaloid from the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicata. Chem Biodivers 7:1311–1324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Reichelt JL, Baumann P (1973) Change of the name Alteromonas marinopraesens (ZoBell and Upham) Baumann et al. to Alteromonas haloplanktis (ZoBell and Upham) comb. nov. and assignment of strain ATCC 23821 (Pseudomonas enalia) and strain c A1 of De Voe and Oginsky to this species. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 23:438–441Google Scholar
  54. Ritter A, Com E, Bazire A, Goncalves Mdos S, Delage L, Le Pennec G, Pineau C, Dreanno C, Compere C, Dufour A (2012) Proteomic studies highlight outer-membrane proteins related to biofilm development in the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. D41. Proteomics 12:3180–3192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Romanenko LA, Lysenko AM, Mikhailov VV, Kurika AV (1994) A novel species of brown-pigmented agarolytic bacteria of the genus Alteromonas. Mikrobiologiya 63:1081–1087Google Scholar
  56. Romanenko LA, Mikhailov VV, Lysenko AM, Stepanenko VI (1995) A novel species of melanin-synthesizing bacteria of the genus Alteromonas. Mikrobiologiya 64:74–77Google Scholar
  57. Romanenko LA, Zhukova NV, Rohde M, Lysenko AM, Mikhailov VV, Stackebrandt E (2003) Pseudoalteromonas agarivorans sp. nov., a novel marine agarolytic bacterium. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53:125–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sawabe T, Makino H, Tatsumi M, Nakano K, Tajima K, Iqbal MM, Yumoto I, Ezura Y, Christen R (1998) Pseudoalteromonas bacteriolytica sp. nov., a marine bacterium that is the causative agent of red spot disease of Laminaria japonica. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48:769–774PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Schweder T, Markert S, Hecker M (2008) Proteomics of marine bacteria. Electrophoresis 29:2603–2616PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Simidu U, Kita-Tsukamoto K, Yasumoto T, Yotsu M (1990) Taxonomy of four marine bacterial strains that produce tetrodotoxin. Int J Syst Bacteriol 44:331–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sobolevskaya MP, Smetanina OF, Speitling M, Shevchenko LS, Dmitrenok PS, Laatsch H, Kuznetsova TA, Ivanova EP, Elyakov GB (2005) Controlling production of brominated cyclic depsipeptides by Pseudoalteromonas maricaloris KMM 636T. Lett Appl Microbiol 40:243–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Stamatakis A (2006) RAxML-VI-HPC: maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses with thousands of taxa and mixed models. Bioinformatics 22:2688–2690PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Thomas T, Evans FF, Schleheck D, Mai-Prochnow A, Burke C, Penesyan A, Dalisay DS, Stelzer-Braid S, Saunders N, Johnson J, Ferriera S, Ferriera S, Kjelleberg S, Egan S (2008) Analysis of the Pseudoalteromonas tunicata genome reveals properties of a surface-associated life style in the marine environment. PLoS One 3, Art no e3252Google Scholar
  64. Validation List no. 139 (2011) List of new names and new combinations previously effectively, but not validly, published. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 61:1011–1013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Van Landschoot A, De Ley J (1983) Intra- and intergeneric similarities of the rRNA cistrons of Alteromonas, Marinomonas (gen. nov.) and some other Gram-negative bacteria. J Gen Microbiol 129:3057–3074Google Scholar
  66. Venkateswaran K, Dohmoto N (2000) Pseudoalteromonas peptidolytica sp. nov., a novel marine mussel-thread-degrading bacterium isolated from the Sea of Japan. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50:565–574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Vera J, Alvarez R, Murano E, Slebe JC, Leon O (1998) Identification of a marine agarolytic Pseudoalteromonas isolate and characterization of its extracellular agarase. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:4378–4383PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. White AH (1940) A bacterial discoloration of print butter. Sci Agric 20:638–645Google Scholar
  69. Wilmes B, Kock H, Glagla S, Albrecht D, Voigt B, Markert S, Gardebrecht A, Bode R, Danchin A, Feller G, Hecker M, Schweder T (2011) Cytoplasmic and periplasmic proteomic signatures of exponentially growing cells of the psychrophilic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125. Appl Environ Microbiol 77:1276–1283PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Xie B-B, Shu Y-L, Qin Q-L, Rong J–C, Zhang X-Y, Chen X-L, Zhou B–C, Zhang Y-Z (2012) Genome sequence of the cycloprodigiosin-producing bacterial strain Pseudoalteromonas rubra ATCC 29570T. J Bacteriol 194:1637–1638PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Yamamoto M, Iwaki H, Kouno K, Inui T (1980) Identification of marine methanol-utilizing bacteria. J Ferment Technol 58:99–106Google Scholar
  72. Yaphe W (1957) The use of agarase from Pseudomonas atlantica in the identification of agar in marine algae (Rhodophyceae). Can J Microbiol 3:987–993PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Yarza P, Ludwig W, Euzéby J, Amann R, Schleifer K–H, Glöckner FO, Rosselló-Mora R (2010) Update of the all-species living tree project based on 16S and 23S rRNA sequence analyses. Syst Appl Microbiol 33:291–299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Zhou WZ, Li WW, Zhang YZ, Gao BY, Wang J (2009) Biosorption of Pb2+ and Cu2+ by an exopolysaccharide from the deep-sea psychrophilic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913. Huan Jing Ke Xue 30:200–205PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elena P. Ivanova
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hooi Jun Ng
    • 1
  • Hayden K. Webb
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Science, Engineering and TechnologySwinburne University of TechnologyHawthornAustralia

Personalised recommendations