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The Family Shewanellaceae

  • Masataka SatomiEmail author
Reference work entry

Abstract

Shewanellaceae, a family within the order Alteromonadales, consist of a sole genus Shewanella. Almost all species of this genus are Gram-negative, motile rod with positive oxidase and catalase reaction. Facultatively anaerobic. Oxygen is used as the electron acceptor during aerobic growth. The mol% G+C of the DNA is 38–54. The genome size of Shewanella is approximately 5 Mb by whole-genome sequences analysis based on some species reported. The organisms are widely distributed in nature; marine environment, marine organisms, deep sea, iced fish, proteinaceous foods, and occasionally clinical samples. Roughly, three major groups are delineated within the genus based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis: high GC content group, psychrotolerant and non-halophilic group, and psychrotolerant and psychrophilic sodium ion-requiring group. Most species related to marine environment are psychrophile and halophile, and can grow at 4 °C, with production of polyunsaturated fatty acid in phospholipids consisting of their cytoplasmic membrane. Psychrotolerant species representing S. putrefaciens which is the type of Shewanella species generally do not synthesize polyunsaturated fatty acid. Due to the ability to grow at 4 °C and to produce a variety of volatile sulfides, including H2S, and in marine fish, they reduce trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) to trimethylamine (TMA) which has a fishy smell; some Shewanella species are important in the food industry. Additionally, S. alga, formerly identified as S. putrefaciens, has been implicated in human disease (bacteremia and sepsis). Some Shewanella species are known to have unique metabolic characteristics including dissimilatory reduction of manganese, iron oxide, and other metal compounds. Therefore, these bacteria are implicated to apply as the microbial fuel cell based on their ability to make electricity.

Keywords

Internal Transcribe Spacer Fatty Acid Profile Anaerobic Respiration Marine Agar Metal Reduction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Research Institute of Fisheries ScienceFisheries Research AgencyYokohamaJapan

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