Advertisement

Primary Peritonitis

  • Robert Baird
  • Jean Martin LabergeEmail author
Living reference work entry
  • 6 Downloads

Abstract

Primary peritonitis is a clinical entity rarely encountered by practicing pediatric surgeons today, although intervention for the diagnosis and treatment is occasionally required. Typically, it develops in the context of a recognized predisposing factor, including underlying hepatic or renal dysfunction or the presence of an indwelling catheter. Occasionally, primary peritonitis may be encountered in the context of a patient without an overt predisposition. An astute clinician must recognize the possibility of an index presentation of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), when clinical presentation is inconsistent with a cause of more conventional secondary peritonitis; failure to do so can result in unnecessary interventions and morbidity.

Keywords

Primary peritonitis Children Peritoneal dialysis Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis Ascites Nephrotic syndrome Ventriculoperitoneal shunting Systemic lupus erythematosus Familial Mediterranean fever 

References

  1. Alwadhi RK, Mathew JL, Roth B. Clinical profile of children with nephrotic syndrome not on glucocorticoid therapy but presenting with infection. J Pediatr Child Health. 2004;40:28–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bakkaloglu SA, Warady BA. Difficult peritonitis cases in children undergoing chronic peritoneal dialysis: relapsing, repeat, recurrent and zoonotic episodes. Pediatric Nephrology. 2015 Sep 1;30(9):1397–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Calligaris L, Marchetti F, Tommasini A, et al. The efficacy of anakinra in an adolescent with colchicine-resistant familial Mediterranean fever. Eur J Pediatr. 2008;167:695–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Clark JH, Fitzgerald JF, Kleiman MB. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. J Pediatr 1984;104 (4):495–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chung HT, Haung JL, Wang HS, et al. Dermatomyositis and polymyositis in childhood. Zhomghua Min Guo Xiao Er Ke Yi Xue Hui Za Zhi. 1994;35(5):407–14.Google Scholar
  6. Conn HO. Spontaneous peritonitis and bacteremia in Laennec’s cirrhosis caused by enteric organisms. Ann Int Med. 1964;60:568–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. d’Annunzio E, Chafai N, Tiret E. Piège de la fièvre méditerranéenne familiale: occlusion intestinale aiguë sur adhérence péritonéale primaire. J Visc Surg. 2011;148(3):248–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dann PH, Amodio JB, Rivera R, et al. Primary bacterial peritonitis in otherwise healthy children: imaging findings. Pediatr Radiol. 2005;35:198–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Doershuk CF, Stern RC. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cystic fibrosis. Gut. 1994;35:709–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ein SH. Primary peritonitis. In: Welch KJ, Randolph JG, editors. Pediatric surgery. 4th ed. Chicago: Year Book; 1986. p. 976.Google Scholar
  11. Ein SH, Miller S, Rutka JT. Appendicitis in the child with a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt: a 30-year review. J Pediatr Surg. 2006;41:1255–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. El-Hakim Allam AA, Eltaras SM, Hussin MH, et al. Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in children using leukocyte esterase reagent strips and granulocyte elastase immunoassay. Clin Exp Hepatol. 2018;4(4):247–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fathalla B, Shah R, Goldsmith D. Peritonitis as the primary manifestation at onset of childhood systemic lupus erythematosus. J Clin Rheumatol. 2010;16:43–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fowler R. Primary peritonitis: changing aspects 1956-1970. Aust Pediatr J. 1971;7:73–83.Google Scholar
  15. Furth SL, Donaldson LA, Sullivan EK, et al. Peritoneal dialysis catheter infections and peritonitis in children: a report of the North American pediatric renal transplant cooperative study. Pediatr Nephrol. 2000;15:179–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Garcia-Tsao G, Conn HO, Lerner E. The diagnosis of bacterial peritonitis: comparison of pH lactate concentration and leukocyte count. Hepatology. 1985;5:91–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gaskill SJ, Marlin AE. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts. Pediatr Neurosurg. 1997;36:115–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gillespie RS, Hauger SB, Holt RM. Primary group A streptococcal peritonitis in a previously healthy child. Scand J Infect Dis. 2002;34:847–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Glatstein M, Constantini S, Scolnik D, et al. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheter protrusion through the anus: case report of an uncommon complication and literature review. Childs Nerv Syst. 2011;27(11):2011–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Granat M, Tur-Kaspa I, Zylber-Katz E, Schenker JG. Reduction of peritoneal adhesion formation by colchicine: a comparative study in the rat. Fertil Steril. 1983;40:369–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Harken AH, Shochat SJ. Gram-positive peritonitis in children. Am J Surg. 1973;125:769–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Keswani M, Redpath Mahon AC, Richardson T, et al. Risk factors for early onset peritonitis: the SCOPE collaborative. Pediatr Nephrol. 2019;34(8):1387–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kuizon B, Melocoton TL, Holloway M, et al. Infections and catheter related complications in pediatric patients treated with peritoneal dialysis at a single institution. Pediatr Nephrol. 1995;9(Suppl):S12–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kumar M, Ghunawat J, Saikia D et al. Incidence and risk factors for major infections in hospitalized children with nephrotic syndrome. J Bras Nefrol. 2019;41(4):526–533. pii: S0101-28002019005028101.Google Scholar
  25. Lane JC, Warady BA, Feneberg R, et al. Relapsing peritonitis in children who undergo chronic peritoneal dialysis: a prospective study of the international pediatric peritonitis registry. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;5:1041–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Leonis MA, Balistreri WF. Evaluation and management of end-stage liver disease in children. Gastroenterology. 2008;134:1741–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Matsell DG, Wyatt RJ. The role of I and B in peritonitis associated with the nephrotic syndrome of childhood. Pediatr Res 1993;34:84–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Milner LS, Berkowitz FE, Ngwenya E, et al. Penicillin resistant pneumococcal peritonitis in nephrotic syndrome. Arch Dis Child. 1987;62:964–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Moskovitz M, Ehrenberg E, Grieco R, et al. Primary peritonitis due to group A streptococcus. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2000;30:332–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Padeh S, Livneh A, Pras E, et al. Familial Mediterranean fever in the first two years of life: a unique phenotype of disease in evolution. J Pediatr. 2010;156:985–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Richer O, Ulinski T, Lemelle I, et al. Abdominal manifestations in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Rheum Dis. 2007;66:174–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Runyon BA, Umland ET, Merlin T. Inoculation of blood culture bottles with ascitic fluid: improved detection of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Arch Intern Med. 1987;147:73–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Serlo W, Heikkinen E, Kouvalainen K. Group A streptococcal peritonitis in infancy. Ann Chir Gynaecol. 1985;74:183–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Uncu N, Bülbül M, Yıldız N, et al. Primary peritonitis in children with nephrotic syndrome: results of a 5-year multicenter study. Eur J Pediatr. 2010;169:73–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Vinchon M, Dhellemmes P. Abdominal complications of peritoneal shunts. In: Pediatric hydrocephalus. Milan: Springer; 2005. p. 315–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Warady BA, Feneberg R, Verrina E, et al. Peritonitis in children who receive long-term peritoneal dialysis: a prospective evaluation of therapeutic guidelines. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;18:2172–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Warady BA, Bakkaloglu S, Newland J, et al. Consensus guidelines for the prevention and treatment of catheter-related infections and peritonitis in pediatric patients receiving peritoneal dialysis: 2012 update. Perit Dial Int. 2012;32(Suppl 2):S32–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wong GK, Goldacker S, Winterhalter C, et al. Outcomes of splenectomy in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID): a survey of 45 patients. Clin Exp Immunol. 2013;172(1):63–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pediatric Surgery, Montreal Children’s HospitalMcGill University Health CenterMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Department of Pediatric SurgeryBC Children’s HospitalVancouverCanada

Personalised recommendations