Living Reference Work Entry

Sports Injuries

pp 1-15

Date: Latest Version

ACL Injuries Identifiable for Pre-participation Imagiological Analysis: Risk Factors

  • Hélder PereiraAffiliated with3B’s Research Group – Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Univ. MinhoICVS/3B’s – PT Government Associated LaboratoryFIFA Medical Centre of Excellence, Clínica Espregueira-Mendes F.C. Porto StadiumOrthopedic Department, Centro Hospitalar Póvoa de Varzim Email author 
  • , Margarida FernandesAffiliated withFIFA Medical Centre of Excellence, Clínica Espregueira-Mendes F.C. Porto Stadium
  • , Rogério PereiraAffiliated withFIFA Medical Centre of Excellence, Clínica Espregueira-Mendes F.C. Porto Stadium
  • , Henrique JonesAffiliated withMedical Department, Portuguese Football Federations and UEFA Medical Committee
  • , J. C. VasconcelosAffiliated withFIFA Medical Centre of Excellence, Clínica Espregueira-Mendes F.C. Porto Stadium
  • , J. M. OliveiraAffiliated with3B’s Research Group – Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Univ. MinhoICVS/3B’s – PT Government Associated LaboratoryFIFA Medical Centre of Excellence, Clínica Espregueira-Mendes F.C. Porto Stadium
  • , R. L. ReisAffiliated with3B’s Research Group – Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Univ. MinhoICVS/3B’s – PT Government Associated LaboratoryFIFA Medical Centre of Excellence, Clínica Espregueira-Mendes F.C. Porto Stadium
  • , Volker MusahlAffiliated withDepartment of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center
  • , J. Espregueira-MendesAffiliated with3B’s Research Group – Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Univ. MinhoICVS/3B’s – PT Government Associated LaboratoryFIFA Medical Centre of Excellence, Clínica Espregueira-Mendes F.C. Porto StadiumOrthopedic Department, Centro Hospitalar Póvoa de Varzim

Abstract

Identification of pre-participation risk factors for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries has been attracting a great deal of interest in the sports medicine and traumatology communities. Appropriate methods that enable predicting which patients could benefit from preventive strategies are most welcome. This would enable athlete-specific training and conditioning or tailored equipment in order to develop appropriate strategies to reduce incidence of injury. In order to accomplish these goals, the ideal system should be able to assess both anatomic and functional features. Complementarily, the screening method must be cost-effective and suited for widespread application. Anatomic study protocol requiring only standard X rays could answer some of such demands. Dynamic MRI/CT evaluation and electronically assisted pivot-shift evaluation can be powerful tools providing complementary information. These upcoming insights, when validated and properly combined, envision changing pre-participation knee examination in the near future. Herein different methods (validated or under research) aiming to improve the capacity to identify persons/athletes with higher risk for ACL injury are overviewed.