Probabilistic Methods in Toxicology

  • Odile MekelEmail author
  • Rainer Fehr
Living reference work entry


The concepts of “variability” and “uncertainty” play a central role in exposure and risk assessment. Traditionally applied worst-case scenarios do not adequately reflect the requirements of modern practice. Methods of probabilistic analysis, such as Monte Carlo simulations, are promising developments for sound consideration of these aspects.



We thank Eva Barrenberg for her English translation assistance.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division Healthy SettingsNRW Centre for HealthBochumGermany
  2. 2.Department of Public HealthUniversity of BielefeldBielefeldGermany

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