CIRP Encyclopedia of Production Engineering

Living Edition
| Editors: The International Academy for Production Engineering, Sami Chatti, Tullio Tolio

Sensor (Assembly)

  • Ming C. LeuEmail author
Living reference work entry



A sensor is any functional unit that records a desired information from a process and provides it for subsequent processing (CIRP Dictionary of Production Engineering 2004).

A sensor is typically a device that transforms signals from the mechanical, thermal, radiant, chemical, or magnetic domain to the electrical domain, but it could measure electric values as well. A single sensor may be based on cross-effects between different signal domains to achieve the signal transformation to the electrical domain to be read by a human or an electronic instrument. These cross-effects are shown in Table 1, where the input signal domains are on the left-hand side, and the output signal domains are at the top (Meijer 2008).
Table 1

Physical sensor effects









Photo luminance

Radiant pressure

Radiant heating

Photo conduction



This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Almassri AM, Wan Hasan WZ, Ahmad SA, Ishak AJ, Ghazali AM, Talib DN, Wada C (2015) Pressure sensor: state of the art, design, and application for robotic hand. J Sens 2015:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balluff (2008) Sensors and RFID: the unbeatable team for advance error proofing (White paper). Balluff, FlorenceGoogle Scholar
  3. Chadda A, Zhu W, Leu MC, Liu XF (2011) Design, implementation, and evaluation of optical low-cost motion capture system. In: Proceedings of the ASME 2011 international design engineering technical conferences & computers and information in engineering conference (IDETC/CIE 2011), 28–31 Aug 2011, Washington, DC. Paper no DETC2011-47270, pp 1451–1461.
  4. CIRP Dictionary of production engineering III: Manufacturing Systems (2004)Google Scholar
  5. Dally J, Riley W, McConnell K (1993) Instrument for engineering measurements. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Honeywell (2002) Retrieved from application of magnetic position sensors. Accessed 4 Dec 2018
  7. Malamas EN, Petrakis EG, Zervakis M, Petit L, Legat J-D (2003) A survey on industrial vision systems, applications and tools. Image Vis Comput 21(2):171–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Meijer G (ed) (2008) Smart sensor systems. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  9. Morris AS (2001) Measurement & instrumentation principles. Butterworth-Heinemann, WoburnCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Santochi M, Dini G (1998) Sensor technology in assembly systems. Ann CIRP 47(2):503–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Saudabayev A, Varol HA (2015) Sensors for robotic hands: a survey of state of the art. IEEE Access 3:1765–1782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Soloman S (2010) Sensors handbook, 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. STEP (2012) STEP 2000 (Siemens Technical Education Program) Self-study courses. EandM, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  14. Tateno T (2006) Interactive system of work support in consideration of worker competency. JSME Int J Ser C 49(2):576–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Zhu W, Vader AM, Chadda A, Leu MC, Liu XF, Vance JB (2013) Wii remote based low-cost motion capture for automated assembly simulation. Virtual Reality 17(2):125–136. Scholar

Copyright information

© CIRP 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringMissouri University of Science and TechnologyRollaUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Joerg Krueger
    • 1
  • Kirsten Tracht
  1. 1.IWFTechnische Universität BerlinBerlinGermany