CIRP Encyclopedia of Production Engineering

Living Edition
| Editors: The International Academy for Production Engineering, Sami Chatti, Tullio Tolio


  • Kosmas Alexopoulos
  • Sotiris Makris
  • George ChryssolourisEmail author
Living reference work entry



The pure act or the process (or the connected series of acts or processes) of physically making a product from its material constituents, is distinct from designing the product, planning and controlling its production, by assuring its quality (CIRP Dictionary of Production Engineering 2004).

Note: (1) “Production” also designates the organizational unit of a manufacturing enterprise dealing with the fabrication of (series) products. (2) The term “fabrication” is particularly used to distinguishing production operations for components as opposed to assembly operations. (3) “Fabrication” is also used to describing the construction of assemblies by welding, e.g., a welded framework.

Theory and Application


Production can be traced as far back as the late nineteenth century, when the onset of the industrial revolution resulted in the need for large-scale operations (Pontrandolfo and Okogbaa 1999).

In 1925, Henry Ford wrote in the American...

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Copyright information

© CIRP 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kosmas Alexopoulos
    • 1
  • Sotiris Makris
    • 1
  • George Chryssolouris
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems and Automation (LMS), Department of Mechanical Engineering and AeronauticsUniversity of PatrasPatrasGreece

Section editors and affiliations

  • Günther Schuh
    • 1
  1. 1.Forschungsinstitut für Rationalisierung (FIR) e. VRWTH AachenAachenGermany