Translocation on the Ribosome
Translocation in protein synthesis denotes the simultaneous movement of two tRNAs together with the mRNA by one codon on the ribosome.
Basic Characteristics of Translocation
Protein synthesis on ribosomes, that is, the translation of the nucleotide sequence of mRNA into the amino acid sequence of proteins, is a cyclic process. In each round of elongation, two tRNA molecules together with the mRNA move through the ribosome in a multistep process called translocation. Thus, peptidyl-tRNA moves from the A (aminoacyl-tRNA) site of the ribosome, where decoding takes place, to the P (peptidyl-tRNA) site, where the peptidyl-tRNA is placed before transferring the nascent peptide onto the aminoacyl-tRNA that enters the A site in the next round of elongation. In parallel, deacylated tRNA moves from the P site to the E (exit) site before dissociating from the ribosome. Translocation is arguably the most complex step of ribosomal protein synthesis and involves large-scale conformational...
- Noller HF, Lancaster L, Mohan S, Zhou J (2017) Ribosome structural dynamics in translocation: yet another functional role for ribosomal RNA. Q Rev Biophys 50:e12Google Scholar