Encyclopedia of Biophysics

Living Edition
| Editors: Gordon Roberts, Anthony Watts, European Biophysical Societies

Translocation on the Ribosome

  • Riccardo Belardinelli
  • Wolfgang Wintermeyer
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35943-9_628-1

Definition

Translocation in protein synthesis denotes the simultaneous movement of two tRNAs together with the mRNA by one codon on the ribosome.

Basic Characteristics of Translocation

Protein synthesis on ribosomes, that is, the translation of the nucleotide sequence of mRNA into the amino acid sequence of proteins, is a cyclic process. In each round of elongation, two tRNA molecules together with the mRNA move through the ribosome in a multistep process called translocation. Thus, peptidyl-tRNA moves from the A (aminoacyl-tRNA) site of the ribosome, where decoding takes place, to the P (peptidyl-tRNA) site, where the peptidyl-tRNA is placed before transferring the nascent peptide onto the aminoacyl-tRNA that enters the A site in the next round of elongation. In parallel, deacylated tRNA moves from the P site to the E (exit) site before dissociating from the ribosome. Translocation is arguably the most complex step of ribosomal protein synthesis and involves large-scale conformational...

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References

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Copyright information

© European Biophysical Societies' Association (EBSA) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physical BiochemistryMax Planck Institute for Biophysical ChemistryGoettingenGermany