Encyclopedia of Biophysics

Living Edition
| Editors: Gordon Roberts, Anthony Watts, European Biophysical Societies

Protein Synthesis: Translational Fidelity

  • Marina V. Rodnina
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35943-9_454-1

Synonyms

Definition

Translation is the process by which the sequence of bases in an mRNA is decoded into the sequence of amino acids in a peptide or protein.

Ribosomes are large ribonucleoprotein particles that synthesize proteins.

tRNAs (transfer RNAs) are small RNAs (75–85 nucleotides) that function as adapters between the codon of the mRNA and the amino acid specified by the codon.

EF-Tu (Elongation Factor Tu) is a GTP-binding protein that delivers aminoacylated tRNA to the ribosome.

Basic Characteristics of Translation

Translation of the nucleotide sequence of messenger RNA (mRNA) into protein takes place on the ribosome and requires aminoacylated tRNA (aa-tRNA) and a translation elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu). Different combinations of base triplets (codons) in mRNA code for each of the 20 standard amino acids that may be incorporated into the polypeptide chain. Each codon is recognized by a complementary anticodon...
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References

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Copyright information

© European Biophysical Societies' Association (EBSA) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physical BiochemistryMax Planck Institute of Biophysical ChemistryGoettingenGermany