Encyclopedia of Biophysics

Living Edition
| Editors: Gordon Roberts, Anthony Watts, European Biophysical Societies

CLC Channels and Transporters

  • Giovanni Zifarelli
  • Michael PuschEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35943-9_360-1


Chloride ions are physiologically relevant in most organisms, and consequently a multitude of different chloride-transporting transmembrane proteins have evolved. The present entry describes a particular class of anion-transporting proteins, the family of CLC proteins.

Research on CLC proteins began with the identification of the first member, the Cl channel CLC-0 of the electric organ of Torpedo (Miller and Richard 1990). The cloning of the Torpedo channel and of the human CLC isoforms (Jentsch et al. 1990, 2005; Jentsch 2008) rendered CLCs accessible to the tools of molecular biology and established a link between CLC dysfunction and genetic diseases. In mammals (Fig. 2), 9 CLC genes code for the plasma membrane localized Cl channels (CLC-1, CLC-2, CLC-Ka, and CLC-Kb) and the Cl/H+ antiporters (CLC-3, CLC-4, CLC-5, CLC-6, and CLC-7) localized in the membrane of intracellular endosomes/lysosomes (Zifarelli and Pusch 2007; Jentsch 2008).

All members characterized so far...

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© European Biophysical Societies' Association (EBSA) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physiology, Anatomy and GeneticsUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK
  2. 2.Istituto di Biofisica, CNRGenovaItaly