Encyclopedia of Biophysics

Living Edition
| Editors: Gordon Roberts, Anthony Watts, European Biophysical Societies

Mass Spectrometry: Methods of Ionization (Applied to Biopolymers)

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35943-9_208-1

Definition

Ionization: the process of converting atoms or molecules to ions. In the context of biopolymer mass spectrometry, this usually involves the addition or removal of protons.

Introduction

The mass spectrometric analysis of biopolymers such as proteins, peptides, oligonucleotides, and carbohydrates has been revolutionized by the development of two key ionization methods: electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI). Both methods facilitate the transfer of large, polar biomolecules from the condensed phase in to the gas phase, permitting determination of their mass/charge ratios (m/z). In the case of ESI, ionization of the biomolecules takes place in solution, under the influence of a strong electric field and before evaporative desolvation of the analyte. MALDI is achieved by embedding the biomolecule in a crystalline matrix capable of absorbing energy from laser irradiation, which causes both desorption and ionization. For large...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Brunelle A, Laprévote O (2010) MALDI imaging mass spectrometry. In: Cole RB (ed) Electrospray ionization and MALDI mass spectrometry, 2nd edn. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 245–261Google Scholar
  2. Cole RB (2010) Electrospray and MALDI mass spectrometry. Wiley, HobokenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dole M, Mack LL, Hines RL (1968) Molecular beams of macroions. J Chem Phys 49:2240–2249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fenn JB, Mann M, Meng CK, Wong SF, Whitehouse CM (1989) Electrospray ionization for mass spectrometry of large biomolecules. Science 246:64–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Iribarne JV, Thomson BA (1976) On the evaporation of small ions from charged droplets. J Chem Phys 64:2287–2294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Karas M, Bachmann D, Hillenkamp F (1985) Influence of the wavelength in high-irradiance ultra violet laser desorption mass spectrometry of organic molecules. Anal Chem 57:2935–2939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Karas M, Bahr U, Ingendoh A, Hillenkamp F (1989) Laser desorption ionization of proteins of mass 100 000 to 250 000 Dalton. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 28:760–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Knochenmuss R (2010) MALDI ionization mechanisms: an overview. In: Cole RB (ed) Electrospray ionization and MALDI mass spectrometry, 2nd edn. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 149–183Google Scholar
  9. Rayleigh L (1882) On the equilibrium of liquid conducting masses charged with electricity. Philos Mag 14:184–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Tanaka K, Waki H, Ido Y, Akita S, Yoshida Y, Yoshida T (1988) Protein and polymer analyses up to m/z 100000 by laser ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2:151–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Zeleny J (1914) The electrical discharge from liquid points, and a hydrostatic method of measuring the electric intensity at their surfaces. Phys Rev 3:69–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© European Biophysical Societies' Association (EBSA) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of ChemistryThe University of NottinghamNottinghamUK

Section editors and affiliations

  • Neil J. Oldham
    • 1
  1. 1.School of ChemistryThe University of NottinghamNottinghamUK