Seismic Monitoring of Volcanoes
Seismicity beneath a volcano usually increases before an eruption because magma and volcanic gas must first force their way up through fractures and passageways. When magma and volcanic gases or fluids move, they will either cause rocks to break or cracks to vibrate. When rocks break, high-frequency earthquakes are triggered. When cracks vibrate, either low-frequency earthquakes or a continuous shaking called volcanic tremor, which can last from minutes to days, occurs.
Volcanic earthquakes often occur in swarms, which are clusters in time and space of similar earthquakes without an obvious mainshock. Volcano seismologists look for changes in the rate, size, and location of earthquakes and for the occurrence of swarms and tremor to forecast eruptions and to evaluate whether a volcanic eruption is intensifying or ending. Volcanic hazards including explosive eruptions, rockfall, pyroclastic flows, and lahars also cause ground vibrations...
- Benoit JP, McNutt SR (1996) Global volcanic earthquake swarm database and prelimary analysis of volcanic earthquake swarm duration. Annali Di Geofisica 39(2):221–229Google Scholar
- Buurman H, West ME, Thompson G (2012) The seismicity of the 2009 redoubt eruption. J Volcanol Geotherm Res. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2012.04.024Google Scholar
- Lahr JC, Chouet BA, Stephens CD, Power JA, Page RA (1994) Earthquake classification, location, and error analysis in a volcanic environment: implications for the magmatic system of the 1989–1990 eruptions at redoubt volcano, Alaska. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 62(1–4):137–151. doi:10.1016/0377-0273(94)90031-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- McNutt SR (1996) Seismic monitoring of volcanoes: A review of the state-of-the-art and recent trends. In: Scarpa R, Tilling R (eds) Monitoring and mitigation of volcano hazards, Chapter 3, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 99–146Google Scholar
- McNutt SR (2000) Volcanic seismicity. In: Houghton HB, McNutt SR, Rymer H, Stix J (eds) Chapter 63 of encyclopedia of volcanoes. Academic Press, San Diego CA, 1015-1033Google Scholar
- McNutt SR (2002) Volcano seismology. In: Lee WHK, Kanamori H, Jennings PC (eds), Chapter 25 of international handbook of earthquake and engineering seismology, IASPEI, Palo Alto, CA, 81A: 383–406Google Scholar
- Moran SC, Freymueller JT, LaHusen RG, McGee KA, Poland MP, Power JA, White RA (2008) Instrumentation recommendations for volcano monitoring at U.S. Volcanoes under the national volcano early warning system: scientific investigations report 2008 – 5114, p 47. Retrieved from http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2008/5114/
- Wassermann J (2012) Volcano seismology. In: Peter B (ed) IASPEI new manual of seismological observatory practice 2 (NMSOP-2), second. Potsdam : Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ, Potsdam, pp 1–77. doi:10.2312/GFZ.NMSOP-2_ch13Google Scholar