Encyclopedia of Earthquake Engineering

2015 Edition
| Editors: Michael Beer, Ioannis A. Kougioumtzoglou, Edoardo Patelli, Siu-Kui Au

Site Response: Comparison Between Theory and Observation

  • Takaji KokushoEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35344-4_20


1/4 wavelength formula; Two-layer system; Downhole array; Multilayer system; Multi-reflection theory; Nonlinear soil properties; Seismic site amplification; Soil damping model; Surface array; S-wave velocity


Kanai et al. ( 1959) discovered from earthquake observations that a horizontal component in site response can be explained by multi-reflection of SH-waves propagating vertically in soil layers. Horizontal displacement of the vertically propagating SH-wave is expressed as
$$ u=Af\left(z-{V}_st\right)+Bf\left(z+{V}_st\right) $$
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil & Environmental EngineeringChuo UniversityTokyoJapan