Encyclopedia of Earthquake Engineering

2015 Edition
| Editors: Michael Beer, Ioannis A. Kougioumtzoglou, Edoardo Patelli, Siu-Kui Au

Seismometer, Extended Response

  • Dieter StollEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35344-4_174

Synonyms

Feedback system; Inverse filtering; Negative impedance converter

Introduction

Until the advent of the broadband seismometer (Wielandt and Streckeisen 1982), electrodynamic geophones were used for picking up short-period (1 s and less) earth movement, and LP (long period) seismometers were used for anything with lower frequency than one second. Owing to their bulk and weight, LP seismometers are not practical for use in the field; they typically require a controlled observatory-type environment. Most types of geophones, on the other hand, are by their very nature field worthy, compact, and cheap. This is because they are mass-produced for use in seismic exploration where they are typically deployed in large numbers (hundreds or thousands). The downside is that their natural frequency is usually 4.5 Hz or more. Some geophones designed for scientific use have a natural frequency of 1 Hz, but this low-frequency limit comes at the expense of significant bulk and weight and an...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Analog Devices (2006) OP27 datasheet, downloadable from http://www.analog.com/static/imported-files/data_sheets/OP27.pdf
  2. Bormann P (ed) (2012) New manual of seismological observatory practice (NMSOP-2), IASPEI. GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam. http://nmsop.gfz-potsdam.de
  3. Havskov J, Alguacil G (2004) Instrumentation in earthquake seismology. Springer, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Lennartz electronic (2013) LE-xD seismometer family (Document 990-0003), PDF document downloadable from http://www.lennartz-electronic.de
  5. Lippmann E (1982) Umwandlung eines elektrodynamischen Seismometers in einen Beschleunigungs-Aufnehmer und Entwicklung eines Filters zur Simulation eines niederfrequenten Seismometers. Diploma thesis, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität MünchenGoogle Scholar
  6. Peterson J (1993) Observations and modeling of seismic background noise. US geological survey open file report 93-322Google Scholar
  7. Rodgers P (1993) Maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio of the electromagnetic seismometer: the optimum coil resistance, amplifier characteristics, and circuit. B Seismol Soc A 83:561–582Google Scholar
  8. Ulmann B (2005) Overdamping geophones using negative impedances. http://www.vaxman.de/publications/teach_gp.pdf
  9. Wielandt E (1991) Messungen der kurzperiodischen Bodenunruhe in Schiltach (BFO). Internal report, published in German only. PDF of original text and English translation available from the author of the present articleGoogle Scholar
  10. Wielandt E, Streckeisen G (1982) The leaf-spring seismometer: design and performance. B Seismol Soc A 72:2349–2367Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lennartz Electronic GmbHTübingenGermany