Encyclopedia of Earthquake Engineering

2015 Edition
| Editors: Michael Beer, Ioannis A. Kougioumtzoglou, Edoardo Patelli, Siu-Kui Au

Seismic Analysis of Steel and Composite Bridges: Numerical Modeling

  • Ioannis VayasEmail author
  • Aristidis Iliopoulos
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35344-4_128


Bearings; Bridge modeling; Composite bridge; Seismic design; Seismic isolation


Reinforced concrete slabs rigidly connected with steel girders have been used to form the basic superstructure of large numbers of deck bridges for many decades. This is due to the fact that the composite construction method offers the bridge engineers a great variety of solutions for different types of problems. A typical composite cross section of a highway bridge is shown in Fig. 1. A series of parallel steel girders are rigidly connected with a reinforced concrete slab through shear connectors. The shear connectors installed are mostly welded studs allowing use of the deck as part of the top flange ( deck plate girders). The longitudinal bending of the composite T-girders, at sagging bending areas, results in tension in steel and compression in concrete. The simultaneous operation of both of these materials generates the composite action which is the most important feature for the...
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Adamakos T, Vayas I, Petridis S, Iliopoulos A (2011) Modeling of curved composite I-girder bridges using spatial systems of beam elements. J Construct Steel Res 67(3):462–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chopra AK (1995) Dynamics of structures. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle RiverzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. EN 1993-2 (2006) CEN European Committee for Standardization. Design of steel structures. Part 2: Steel bridgesGoogle Scholar
  4. EN 1994-2 (2005) CEN European Committee for Standardization. Design of composite steel and concrete structures. Part 2: General rules and rules for bridgesGoogle Scholar
  5. EN 1998-2 (2005) CEN European Committee for Standardization. Design of structures for earthquake resistance. Part 2: Bridges.Google Scholar
  6. Hambly EC (1990) Bridge deck behaviour, 2nd edn. E. F. & N. Spon, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. Kindmann R, Kraus M (2011) Steel structures – design using FEM. Ernst & Sohn, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  8. Vayas I, Iliopoulos A (2013) Design of steel concrete composite bridges to Eurocodes. CPC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Vayas I, Iliopoulos A, Adamakos T (2010) Spatial systems for modelling steel-concrete composite bridges – comparison of grillage systems and FE models. Steel Construct Des Res 3:100–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Vayas I, Adamakos T, Iliopoulos A (2011) Three dimensional modeling for steel-concrete composite bridges using systems of bar elements – modeling of skewed bridges. Int J Steel Struct 11(2):157–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Traffic Engineering LaboratoryNational Technical University of Athens (N.T.U.A.)AthensGreece
  2. 2.Peikko Greece SAMarousiGreece