Encyclopedia of Earthquake Engineering

2015 Edition
| Editors: Michael Beer, Ioannis A. Kougioumtzoglou, Edoardo Patelli, Siu-Kui Au

Seismic Actions Due to Near-Fault Ground Motion

  • George P. MavroeidisEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35344-4_121

Synonyms

Damping coefficient; Forward directivity; Near field; Near source; Permanent translation (fling); Response spectrum; Seismic ground excitation; Strength reduction factor; Time history

Introduction

Near-fault seismic ground motions are frequently characterized by intense velocity and displacement pulses of relatively long duration that clearly distinguish them from typical far-field ground motion records. This observation, along with its engineering significance, was first made with respect to the C02 record (Fig. 1a) generated by the 1966 Parkfield earthquake at a distance of only 80 m from the fault break (Housner and Trifunac 1967). The damage that the Olive View Hospital sustained during the 1971 San Fernando earthquake was also attributed to the effect of near-fault ground motions on flexible structures (Bertero et al. 1978). That was perhaps the first time that earthquake engineers linked the structural damage caused by an earthquake to the impulsive character of...
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Notes

Acknowledgments

The material presented in this entry is primarily based on previous articles published by the author and Professor Apostolos S. Papageorgiou. The author is grateful to Professor Papageorgiou for providing him with the opportunity to work on this research, as well as for his guidance and advice.

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) under Grant Nos. EEC-9701471, CMS-0077504, and CMMI-1032504; by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) under Contract DTFH61-98-C-00094; and by the US Geological Survey (USGS) under Award No. 04HQGR0029. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the funding agencies.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth SciencesUniversity of Notre DameNotre DameUSA