Encyclopedia of Earthquake Engineering

2015 Edition
| Editors: Michael Beer, Ioannis A. Kougioumtzoglou, Edoardo Patelli, Siu-Kui Au

Steel Structures

  • Roberto LeonEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35344-4_109


Metal structures; Steel connections; Steel construction


The use of metals as the principal construction material for modern buildings and bridges dates back to the beginning of the Industrial Revolution (Bodsworth 2001; Ashton 1968). Three metallic materials have been commonly used in the construction industry: cast and wrought iron, steel, and aluminum. Cast iron, which was first manufactured as early as fifth century BC, is typically considered to be too brittle and difficult to join but received widespread application in construction through the late eighteenth century. The use of cast iron is uncommon in today’s construction industry, but some ductile cast irons continue to be used in specialized applications such as water pipes. The use of cast iron was rapidly replaced by wrought iron, which was easier to work with, leading to the construction of the first large metal structure, the Iron Bridge at Coalbrookdale by A. Darby in 1780 (www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Iron_Bridge_at_Coalbrookdale.html...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. AISC 358 (2010) Prequalified connections for special and intermediate moment frames for seismic applications. American Institute of Steel Construction, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  2. ASCE (1906) The effects of the San Francisco earthquake of April 18th, 1906, on Engineering Constructions: report of Committee on Fire and Earthquake Damage To Buildings. Trans ASCE 57(2):208–263Google Scholar
  3. Ashton TS (1968) Iron and steel in the industrial revolution. Augustus M. Kelley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Bodsworth C (ed) (2001) British iron and steel AD1800-2000 and beyond, Book 472. IOM Communications, LondonGoogle Scholar
  5. Clifton C et al (2011) Steel structures damage from the Christchurch earthquake of February 22, 2011. Bull N Z Soc Earthq Eng 44(4):297–318Google Scholar
  6. Condit CW (1968) American building. The University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  7. FEMA 355E (2000a) State of the art report on past performance of steel moment-frame buildings. FEMA, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  8. FEMA 355B (2000b) State of the art report on welding and inspection. FEMA, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  9. Halmos GT (2000) Roll forming handbook. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  10. Hamburger R, Meyer JD (2006) The performance of steel-frame buildings with infill masonry walls in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Earthq Spectra, EERI 22(2):S43–S68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kurzman D (2001) Disaster! The Great San Francisco earthquake and fire of 1906. Harper Perennial, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Leon et al (2014) Performance of RC beam-column joints in the Christchurch 2010–2011 earthquakes. In: SP-296: symposium honoring James O. Jirsa’s contributions in structural concrete: a time to reflect, CD. ACI, Farmington HillsGoogle Scholar
  13. Tylecote RF (1976) A history of metallurgy. Metals Society, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. Viest et al (1997) Composite construction design for buildings. McGraw-Hill/ASCE, New York, 416 ppGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Charles Edward Via, Jr. Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringVirginia TechBlacksburgUSA