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The Family Veillonellaceae

  • Hélène MarchandinEmail author
  • Estelle Jumas-Bilak
Reference work entry

Abstract

The family Veillonellaceae belongs to the phylum Firmicutes, the class Negativicutes, and the order Selenomonadales. Delineation of the family was established in 2010 on the basis of 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analyses, and to date, the family includes 6 genera of Gram-negative, anaerobic, or microaerophilic cocci and coccobacilli and 25 species, i.e., the genera Veillonella (12 species), Megasphaera and Dialister (5 species each), Allisonella, Anaeroglobus, and Negativicoccus (1 species each). The most striking particularity of this family, and more generally of the class Negativicutes, is to group bacteria with Gram-negative cell wall structure within a phylum of Gram-positive bacteria. Genera can be distinguished based on their phenotypic, genetic, genomic, and phylogenetic characteristics, while molecular-based methods may be required for species affiliation, particularly in the genus Veillonella. The isolates displayed various resistance patterns to antimicrobial agents. The family includes three beer-spoilage species belonging to the genus Megasphaera, other species being representatives of several human and other animal microbiotae, and some of them can act as opportunistic pathogens for animals including humans being usually responsible for polymicrobial infections and more rarely for monomicrobial severe infections like osteoarticular infections or endocarditis.

Keywords

Bacterial Vaginosis Prosthetic Joint Infection rpoB Gene Ruminal Bacterium Skin Microbiome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

Two collaborators have been particularly precious in our work on the family Veillonellaceae, particularly in the characterization of 2 of the 6 genera and of 6 of the 25 species of the family. So, we would like to sincerely thank Bernard Gay, recently retired, for performing electron microscopy studies on all the novel taxa we characterized within this family. We would also like to posthumously dedicate this chapter to Jean-Philippe Carlier working at the National Reference Center of the Pasteur Institute in Paris for his constant help and long, faithful, and fruitful collaboration with our team. And of course, no adventure in the unknown world of Veillonellaceae would have been possible without first isolation and recognition of these unknown bacteria and the authors are very grateful to Dr Hélène Jean-Pierre and to the technical teams from the anaerobe Laboratory of the Montpellier Teaching Hospital and from the bacteriology laboratory of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Montpellier.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Equipe Pathogènes et Environnements, UMR5119 ECOSYMUniversité Montpellier 1MontpellierFrance
  2. 2.Laboratoire de BactériologieCentre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de MontpellierMontpellierFrance
  3. 3.Laboratoire d’Hygiène hospitalièreCentre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de MontpellierMontpellierFrance

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