The Family Fusobacteriaceae

Reference work entry

Abstract

The family Fusobacteriaceae, which falls in the Fusobacteria class and the order Fusobacteriales, consists of microaerophilic to obligate anaerobic Gram-negative rods. All of them are nonmotile and fermentative. The members ferment carbohydrates or amino acids and peptides producing various organic acids such as acetic, propionic, butyric, formic, or succinic acid depending on the bacterium and the substrate. Habitats are oral and intestinal mucosae of animals including mammals, as well as anaerobic sediments. Fusobacteriaceae includes the genera Cetobacterium, Fusobacterium, Ilyobacter, Propionigenium, and Psychrilyobacter. The type genus is Fusobacterium Knorr 1922AL. “F. naviforme” and “I. delafieldii” fall outside the phylogenetic tree established for Fusobacteriaceae.

Keywords

Internal Transcribe Spacer Succinic Acid Liver Abscess Minke Whale Colistin Sulfate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgement

The author wants to thank Raúl Muñoz for preparing the phylogenetic trees.

References

  1. Adriaans B, Garelick H (1989) Cytotoxicity of Fusobacterium ulcerans. J Med Microbiol 29:177–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Amoako KK, Goto Y, Shinjo T (1993) Comparison of extracellular enzymes of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. funduliforme. J Clin Microbiol 31:2244–2247PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Amoako KK, Goto Y, Shinjo T (1994) Studies on the factors affecting the hemolytic activity of Fusobacterium necrophorum. Vet Microbiol 41:11–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Andersen RN, Ganeshkumar N, Kolenbrander PE (1998) Helicobacter pylori adheres selectively to Fusobacterium spp. Oral Microbiol Immunol 13:51–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Andrews DMA, Gharbia SE, Shah HN (1997) Characterization of a novel bacteriophage in Fusobacterium varium. Clin Infect Dis 25(Suppl 2):S287–S288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Appelbaum PC, Spangler SK, Jacobs MR (1990) Beta-lactamase production and susceptibilities to amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefoxitin, imipenem, and metronidazole of 320 non-Bacteroides fragilis Bacteroides isolates and 129 fusobacteria from 28 U.S. centers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 34:1546–1550PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Bachrach G, Haake SK, Glick A, Hazan R, Naor R, Andersen RN, Kolenbrander PE (2004) Characterization of the novel Fusobacterium nucleatum plasmid pKH9 and evidence of an addiction system. Appl Environ Microbiol 70:6957–6962PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Bailey GD, Love DN (1993) Fusobacterium necrophorum is a synonym of Fusobacterium varium. Int J Syst Bacteriol 43:819–821Google Scholar
  9. Bank S, Nielsen HM, Mathiasen BH, Leth DC, Hagelskjaer Kristensen L, Prag J (2010) Fusobacterium necrophorum – detection and identification on a selective agar. APMIS 118:994–999PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Beighton D, Homer KA, De Graaff J (1997) Endopeptidase activities of selected Porphyromonas spp., Prevotella spp. and Fusobacterium spp. of oral and non-oral origin. Archs Oral Biol 42:827–834Google Scholar
  11. Bjornson HS (1984) Activation of Hageman factor by lipopolysaccharides of Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides vulgatus, and Fusobacterium mortiferum. Rev Infect Dis 6(Suppl 1):S30–S33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bolstad AI, Jensen HB (1993) Polymerase chain reaction-amplified nonradioactive probes for identification of Fusobacterium nucleatum. J Clin Microbiol 31:528–532PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Bolstad AI, Høgh BT, Jensen HB (1995) Molecular characterization of a 40-kDA outer membrane protein, FomA, of Fusobacterium periodonticum and comparison with Fusobacterium nucleatum. Oral Microbiol Immunol 10:257–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bolstad AI, Jensen HB, Bakken V (1996) Taxonomy, biology, and periodontal aspects of Fusobacterium nucleatum. Clin Microbiol Rev 9:55–71PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Both B, Kaim G, Wolters J, Schleifer KH, Stackebrandt E, Ludwig W (1991) Propionigenium modestum: a separate line of descent within the eubacteria. FEMS Microbiol Lett 62:53–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bouma CL, Reizer J, Reizer A, Robrish SA, Thompson J (1997) 6-Phospho-α-d-glucosidase from Fusobacterium mortiferum: cloning, expression, and assignment to family 4 of the glycosylhydrolases. J Bacteriol 179:4129–4137PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Brazier JS, Citron DM, Goldstein EJ (1991) A selective medium for Fusobacterium spp. J Appl Bacteriol 71:343–346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Brook I (1994) Fusobacterial infections in children. J Infect 28:155–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Brune A, Schink B (1992) Anaerobic degradation of hydroaromatic compounds by newly isolated fermenting bacteria. Arch Microbiol 158:320–327Google Scholar
  20. Brune A, Evers S, Kaim G, Ludwig W, Schink B (2002) Ilyobacter insuetus sp. nov., a fermentative bacterium specialized in the degradation of hydroaromatic compounds. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:429–432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Calhoon DA, Mayberry WR, Slots J (1983) Cellular fatty acids and soluble protein profiles of oral fusobacteria. J Dent Res 62:1181–1185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Chaushu S, Wilensky A, Gur C, Shapira L, Elboim M, Halftek G, Polak D, Achdout H, Bachrach G, Mandelboim O (2012) Direct recognition of Fusobacterium nucleatum by the NK cell natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp46 aggravates periodontal disease. PLoS Pathog 8:e1002601. doi:10.1371/journal. ppat. 1002601PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Citron DM (2002) Update on the taxonomy and clinical aspects of the genus Fusobacterium. Clin Infect Dis 35(Suppl 1):S22–S27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Conrads G, Claros MC, Citron DM, Tyrrell KL, Merriam V, Goldstein EJ (2002) 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer sequences for analysis of the phylogenetic relationships among species of the genus Fusobacterium. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:493–499PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Dabija-Wolter G, Cimpan MR, Costea DE, Johannessen AC, Sørnes S, Neppelberg E, Al-Haroni M, Skaug N, Bakken V (2009) Fusobacterium nucleatum enters normal human oral fibroblasts in vitro. J Periodontol 80:1174–1183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Desvaux M, Khan A, Beatson SA, Scott-Tucker A, Henderson IR (2005) Protein secretion systems in Fusobacterium nucleatum: genomic identification of Type 4 piliation and complete Type V pathways brings new insight into mechanisms of pathogenesis. Biochim Biophys Acta 1713:92–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Duncan SH, Hold GL, Harmsen HJ, Stewart CS, Flint HJ (2002) Growth requirements and fermentation products of Fusobacterium prausnitzii, and a proposal to reclassify it as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii gen. nov., comb. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:2141–2146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Dzink JL, Sheenan MT, Socransky SS (1990) Proposal of three subspecies of Fusobacterium nucleatum Knorr 1922: Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. nucleatum subsp. nov., comb. nov.; Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum subsp. nov., nom. rev., comb. nov.; and Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. vincentii subsp. nov., nom. rev., comb. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 40:74–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Edberg SC, Bell SR (1985) Lack of constitutive beta-glucosidase (esculinase) in the genus Fusobacterium. J Clin Microbiol 22:435–437PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Edwards KJ, Logan JMJ, Gharbia SE (2011) Genus II Cetobacterium Foster, Ross, Naylor, Collins, Ramos, Fernández-Garayzábal and Reid 1996, 362VP. In: Krieg NR, Staley JT, Brown DR, Hedlund BP, Paster BJ, Ward NL, Ludwig W, Whitman WB (eds) Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology, vol 4, 2nd edn, The Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, Tenericutes (Mollicutes), Acidobacteria, Fibrobacteres, Fusobacteria, Dictyoglomi, Gemmatimonadetes, Lentisphaerae, Verrucomicrobia, Chlamydiae, and Planctomycetes. Springer, New York, pp 758–759Google Scholar
  31. Fernandez-Piquer J, Bowman JP, Ross T, Tamplin ML (2012) Molecular analysis of the bacterial communities in the live Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and the influence of postharvest temperature on its structure. J Appl Microbiol 112:1134–1143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Finegold SM, Vaisanen ML, Molitoris DR, Tomzynski TJ, Song Y, Liu C, Collins MD, Lawson PA (2003) Cetobacterium somerae sp. nov. from human feces and emended description of the genus Cetobacterium. Syst Appl Microbiol 26:177–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Foster G, Ross HM, Naylor RD, Collins MD, Ramos CP, Fernandez Garayzabal F, Reid RJ (1995) Cetobacterium ceti gen. nov., sp. nov., a new Gram-negative obligate anaerobe from sea mammals. Lett Appl Microbiol 21:202–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Fredriksen G, Hofstad T (1978) Chemotypes of Fusobacterium nucleatum lipopolysaccharides. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand Sect B 86:41–45Google Scholar
  35. Friberg N, Carlson P, Kentala E, Mattila PS, Kuusela P, Meri S, Jarva H (2008) Factor H binding as a complement evasion mechanism for an anaerobic pathogen, Fusobacterium necrophorum. J Immunol 181:8624–8632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Garcia GG, Amoako KK, Xu DL, Inoue T, Goto Y, Shinjo T (1999) Chemical composition of endotoxins produced by Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme. Microbios 100:175–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Garrity GM, Bell JA, Lilburn T (2005) Appendix 2. Taxonomic outline of Archaea and Bacteria. In: Brenner DJ, Krieg NR, Staley JT (eds) Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology, vol 2, 2nd edn. The Proteobacteria. Part A Introductory essays. Springer, New York, pp 207–220Google Scholar
  38. George KS, Reynolds MA, Falkler WA Jr (1997) Arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting and clonal analysis of oral Fusobacterium nucleatum isolates. Oral Microbiol Immunol 12:219–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Gharbia SE, Shah HN (1989) Glutamate dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate reductase electrophoretic patterns and deoxyribonucleic acid-deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization among human oral isolates of Fusobacterium nucleatum. Int J Syst Bacteriol 39:467–470Google Scholar
  40. Gharbia SE, Shah HN (1990a) Heterogeneity within Fusobacterium nucleatum, proposal of four subspecies. Lett Appl Microbiol 10:105–108Google Scholar
  41. Gharbia SE, Shah HN (1990b) Identification of Fusobacterium species by the electrophoretic migration of glutamate dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate reductase in relation to their DNA base composition and peptidoglycan dibasic amino acids. J Med Microbiol 33:183–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Gharbia SE, Shah HN (1992) Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. fusiforme subsp. nov. and Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. animalis subsp. nov. as additional subspecies within Fusobacterium nucleatum. Int J Syst Bacteriol 42:296–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Gharbia SE, Shah HN, Lawson PA, Haapasalo M (1990) Distribution and frequency of Fusobacterium nucleatum subspecies in the human oral cavity. Oral Microbiol Immunol 5:324–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Gharbia SE, Shah HN, Edwards KJ (2011) Genus I. Fusobacterium Knorr 1922, 4AL. In: Krieg NR, Staley JT, Brown DR, Hedlund BP, Paster BJ, Ward NL, Ludwig W, Whitman WB (eds) Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology, vol 4, 2nd edn, The Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, Tenericutes (Mollicutes), Acidobacteria, Fibrobacteres, Fusobacteria, Dictyoglomi, Gemmatimonadetes, Lentisphaerae, Verrucomicrobia, Chlamydiae, and Planctomycetes. Springer, New York, pp 748–758Google Scholar
  45. Goolamali SJ, Carulli MT, Davies UM (2006) Spinal abscess and mitral valve endocarditis secondary to asymptomatic fusobacterium-induced dental abscess. J R Soc Med 99:368–369PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Gouby A, Dubois A, Bouziges N, Saissi G, Ramuz M (1987) Septicopyemia caused by Fusobacterium gonidiaformans. Presse Med 16:34.(Article in French)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Gursoy UK, Kӧnӧnen E, Uitto VJ (2008) Intracellular replication of fusobacteria requires new actin filament formation of epithelial cells. APMIS 116:1063–1070PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Haake SK, Yoder SC, Attarian G, Podkaminer K (2000) Native plasmids of Fusobacterium nucleatum: characterization and use in development of genetic systems. J Bacteriol 182:1176–1180PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Han YW, Ikegami A, Rajanna C, Kawsar HI, Zhou Y, Li M, Sojar HT, Genco RJ, Kuramitsu HK, Deng CX (2005) Identification and characterization of a novel adhesin unique to oral fusobacteria. J Bacteriol 187:5330–5340PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Hase S, Hofstad T, Rietschel ET (1977) Chemical structure of the lipid A component of lipopolysaccharides from Fusobacterium nucleatum. J Bacteriol 129:9–14PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Hermansson K, Perry MB, Altman E, Brisson JR, Garcia MM (1993) Structural studies of the O-antigenic polysaccharide of Fusobacterium necrophorum. Eur J Biochem 212:801–809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Hill GB (1998) Preterm birth: associations with genital and possibly oral microflora. Ann Periodontol 3:222–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Hodgson AL, Nicholson LA, Doran TJ, Corner LA (1993) Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of Fusobacterium necrophorum using a novel repeat DNA sequence and 16S rRNA gene probe. FEMS Microbiol Lett 107:205–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Hofstad T, Olsen I (2005) Fusobacterium and Leptotrichia. In: Borriello SP, Murray PR, Funke G (eds) Topley & Wilson’s microbiology & microbial infections, vol 2, 10th edn, Bacteriology. Hodder Arnold, ASM Press, Washington, DC, pp 1945–1956Google Scholar
  55. Holdeman LV, Cato EP, Moore WEC (1977) Anaerobe laboratory manual, 4th edn. Southern Printing, Blacksburg, pp 23–28Google Scholar
  56. Holst E, Goffeng AR, Andersch B (1994) Bacterial vaginosis and vaginal microorganisms in idiopathic premature labor and association with pregnancy outcome. J Clin Microbiol 32:176–186PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Jalava J, Eerola E (1999) Phylogenetic analysis of Fusobacterium alocis and Fusobacterium sulci based on 16S rRNA gene sequences: proposal of Filifactor alocis (Cato, Moore and Moore) comb. nov. and Eubacterium sulci (Cato, Moore and Moore) comb. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 49:1375–1379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Jang SS, Hirsch DC (1994) Characterization, distribution and microbiological associations of Fusobacterium spp. in clinical specimens of animal origin. J Clin Microbiol 32:384–387PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Janssen PH, Harfoot CG (1990) Ilyobacter delafieldii sp. nov., a metabolically restricted anaerobic bacterium fermenting PHB. Arch Microbiol 154:253–259Google Scholar
  60. Janssen PH, Liesack W (1995) Succinate decarboxylation by Propionigenium maris sp. nov., a new anaerobic bacterium from an estuarine sediment. Arch Microbiol 164:29–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Jantzen E, Hofstad T (1981) Fatty acids of Fusobacterium species: taxonomic implications. J Gen Microbiol 123:163–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Jenkins SA, Drucker DB, Hillier VF, Ganguli LA (1992) Numerical taxonomy of Bacteroides and other genera of Gram-negative anaerobic rods. Microbios 69:139–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Jensen A, Hagelskjaer Kristensen L, Nielsen H, Prag J (2008) Minimum requirements for a rapid and reliable routine identification and antibiogram of Fusobacterium necrophorum. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 27:557–563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Jin J, Xu D, Narongwanichgarn W, Goto Y, Haga T, Shinjo T (2002) Characterization of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer regions among strains of the Fusobacterium necrophorum cluster. J Vet Med Sci 64:273–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Jin J, Haga T, Shinjo T, Goto Y (2004) Phylogenetic analysis of Fusobacterium necrophorum, Fusobacterium varium and Fusobacterium nucleatum based on gyrB gene sequences. J Vet Med Sci 66:1243–1245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Jousimies-Somer HR (1997) Recently described clinically important anaerobic bacteria: taxonomic aspect and update. Clin Infect Dis 25:S78–S87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Jousimies-Somer H, Summanen P (2002) Recent taxonomic changes and terminology update of clinically significant anaerobic gram-negative bacteria (excluding spirochetes). Clin Infect Dis 35(Suppl 1):S17–S21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Kanoe M, Koyanagi Y, Kondo C, Mamba K, Makita T, Kai K (1998) Location of haemagglutinin in bacterial cells of Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. necrophorum. Microbios 96:33–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Kapatral V, Anderson I, Ivanova N, Reznik G, Los T, Lykidis A, Bhattacharyya A, Bartman A, Gardner W, Grechkin G, Zhu L, Vasieva O, Chu L, Kogan Y, Chaga O, Goltsman E, Bernal A, Larsen N, D'Souza M, Walunas T, Pusch G, Haselkorn R, Fonstein M, Kyrpides N, Overbeek R (2002) Genome sequence and analysis of the oral bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 25586. J Bacteriol 184:2005–2018PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Kapatral V, Ivanova N, Anderson I, Reznik G, Bhattacharyya A, Gardner WL, Mikhailova N, Lapidus A, Larsen N, D’Souza M, Walunas T, Haselkorn R, Overbeek R, Kyrpides N (2003) Genome analysis of F. nucleatum sub spp. vincentii and its comparison with the genome of F. nucleatum ATCC 25586. Genome Res 13:1180–1189PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Karpathy SE, Qin X, Giola J, Jiang H, Liu Y, Petrosino JF, Yerrapragada S, Fox GE, Haake SK, Weinstock GM, Highlander SK (2007) Genome sequence of Fusobacterium nucleatum subspecies polymorphum – a genetically tractable fusobacterium. PLoS One 8:e659. doi:10.1371/journal.pone. 0000659Google Scholar
  72. Kim H-S, Lee D-S, Chang Y-H, Kim MJ, Koh S, Kim J, Seong J-H, Song SK, Shin HS, Son J-B, Jung MJ, Park S-N, Yoo SY, Cho KW, Kim D-K, Moon S, Kim D, Choi Y, Kim B-O, Jang H-S, Kim CS, Kim C, Choe S-J, Kook J-K (2010) Application of rpoB and zinc protease gene for use in molecular discrimination of Fusobacterium nucleatum subspecies. J Clin Microbiol 48:545–553PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Kolenbrander PE, Andersen RN, Moore LVH (1989) Coaggregation of Fusobacterium nucleatum, Selenomonas fluggei, Selenomonas infelix, Selenomonas noxia, and Selenomonas sputigena with strains from 11 genera of oral bacteria. Infect Immun 57:3194–3203PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Kolenbrander PE, Parrish KD, Andersen RN, Greenberg EP (1995) Intergeneric coaggregation of oral Treponema spp. with Fusobacterium spp. and intrageneric coaggregation among Fusobacterium spp. Infect Immun 63:4584–4588PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Kӧnönen E, Kanervo A, Salminen K, Jousimies-Somer H (1999) β-Lactamase production and antimicrobial susceptibility of oral heterogenous Fusobacterium nucleatum populations in young children. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43:1270–1273Google Scholar
  76. Langworth BF (1977) Fusobacterium necrophorum: its characteristics and role as an animal pathogen. Bacteriol Rev 41:373–390PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Lawson FA, Gharbia SE, Shah HN, Clark DR (1989) Recognition of Fusobacterium nucleatum subgroups Fn-1, Fn-2 and Fn-3 by ribosomal RNA gene restriction patterns. FEMS Microbiol Lett 53:41–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Lawson PA, Gharbia SE, Shah HN, Clark DR, Collins MD (1991) Intrageneric relationships of members of the genus Fusobacterium as determined by reverse transcriptase sequencing of small-subunit rRNA. Int J Syst Bacteriol 41:347–354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Lee H-R, Jun H-K, Kim H-D, Lee S-H, Choi B-K (2012) Fusobacterium nucleatum GroEL induces risk factors of atherosclerosis in human microvascular endothelial cells and ApoE-/- mice. Mol Oral Microbiol 27:109–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Lefebvre C, Lambert M, Bastien P, Wauters G, Nagant de Deuxchaisnes C (1985) Septic trochanteric bursitis caused by Fusobacterium gonidiaformans. J Rheumatol 12:391–392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Liu D, Dong X (2011) Chapter 48. Fusobacterium. In: Liu D (ed) Molecular detection of human bacterial pathogens. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 543–553Google Scholar
  82. Ludwig W, Strunk O, Klugbauer S, Klugbauer N, Weizenegger M, Neumaier J, Bachleitner M, Schleifer KH (1998) Bacterial phylogeny based on comparative sequence analysis. Electrophoresis 19:554–568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Ludwig W, Euzéby J, Whitman W (2011) Road map of the phyla Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, Tenericutes (Mollicutes), Acidobacteria, Fibrobacteres, Fusobacteria, Dictyoglomi, Gemmatimonadetes, Lentisphaerae, Verrucomicrobia, Chlamydiae, and Planctomycetes. In: Krieg NR, Staley JT, Brown DR, Hedlund BP, Paster BJ, Ward NL, Ludwig W, Whitman WB (eds) Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology, vol 4, 2nd edn, The Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, Tenericutes (Mollicutes), Acidobacteria, Fibrobacteres, Fusobacteria, Dictyoglomi, Gemmatimonadetes, Lentisphaerae, Verrucomicrobia, Chlamydiae, and Planctomycetes. Springer, New York, pp 1–19Google Scholar
  84. Machuca P, Daille L, Vinés E, Berrocal L, Bittner M (2010) Isolation of novel bacteriophage specific for the periodontal pathogen Fusobacterium nucleatum. Appl Environ Microbiol 76:7243–7250PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. Magee JT, Hindmarch JM, Bennett KW, Duerden BI, Aries RE (1989) A pyrolysis mass spectrometry study of fusobacteria. J Med Microbiol 28:227–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Martirosian G (2004) Anaerobic intestinal microflora in pathogenesis of autism? Postepy Hig Med Dosw 58:349–351.(Article in Polish)Google Scholar
  87. McKay TL, Ko J, Bilalis Y, DiRienzo JM (1995) Mobile genetic elements of Fusobacterium nucleatum. Plasmid 33:15–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Meier T, von Ballmoos C, Neumann S, Kaim G (2003) Complete DNA sequence of the atp operon of the sodium-dependent F1F0 ATP synthase from Ilyobacter tartaricus and identification of the encoded subunits. Biochim Biophys Acta 1625:221–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Meisel-Mikolajczyk F, Dobrowolska T (1974) Comparative immunochemical studies on the endotoxins of two Fusobacterium necrophorum strains. Bull Acad Pol Sci Ser Sci Biol 22:555–562Google Scholar
  90. Mikamo H, Kawazoe K, Sato Y, Imai A, Tamaya T (1998) Preterm labor and bacterial intraamniotic infection: arachidonic acid liberation by phospholipase A2 of Fusobacterium nucleatum. Am J Obstet Gynecol 179:1579–1582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Mira A, Pushker R, Legault BA, Moreira D, Rodriguez-Valera F (2004) Evolutionary relationships of Fusobacterium nucleatum based on phylogenetic analysis and comparative genomics. BMC Evol Biol 4:50. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-50PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Nagaraja TG, Narayanan SK, Stewart GC, Chengappa MM (2005) Fusobacterium necrophorum infections in animals: pathogenesis and pathogenic mechanisms. Anaerobe 11:239–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Narayanan S, Nagaraja TG, Okwumabua O, Staats J, Chengappa MM, Oberst RD (1997) Ribotyping to compare Fusobacterium necrophorum isolates from bovine liver abscesses, ruminal walls, and ruminal contents. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:4671–4678PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Narayanan SK, Nagaraja TG, Chengappa MM, Stewart GC (2001) Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the leukotoxin gene from Fusobacterium necrophorum. Infect Immun 69:5447–5455PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. Narongwanichgarn W, Kawaguchi E, Misawa N, Goto Y, Haga T (2001) Differentiation of Fusobacterium necrophorum subspecies from bovine pathological lesions by RAPD-PCR. Vet Microbiol 1:383–388Google Scholar
  96. Narongwanichgarn W, Misawa N, Jin JH, Amoako KK, Kawaguchi E, Shinjo T, Haga T, Goto Y (2003) Specific detection and differentiation of two subspecies of Fusobacterium necrophorum by PCR. Vet Microbiol 91:183–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Neumann S, Matthey U, Kaim G, Dimroth P (1998) Purification and properties of the F1F0 ATPase of Ilyobacter tartaricus, a sodium ion pump. J Bacteriol 180:3312–3316PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. Nicholson LA, Morrow CJ, Corner LA, Hodgson ALM (1994) Phylogenetic relationship of Fusobacterium necrophorum A, AB and B biotypes based upon 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Int J Syst Bacteriol 44:315–319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Okada Y, Kanoe M, Yaguchi Y, Watanabe T, Ohmi H, Okamoto K (1999) Adherence of Fusobacterium necrophorum subspecies necrophorum to different animal cells. Microbios 99:95–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Okada Y, Kanoe M, Okamoto K, Sakamoto K, Yaguchi Y, Watanabe T (2000) Effects of Fusobacterium necrophorum subspecies necrophorum on extracellular matrix of tissue-cultured bovine kidney cells. Microbios 101:147–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Okamoto K, Kanoe K, Watanabe T (2001) Collagenolytic activity of a cell wall preparation from Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum. Microbios 106(Suppl 2):89–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Okamoto K, Kanoe M, Inoue M, Watanabe T, Inoue T (2005) Dermotoxic activity of a collagenolytic cell wall component from Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum. Vet J 169:308–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Okamoto K, Kanoe M, Yaguchi Y, Inoue T, Watanabe T (2006) Effects of a collagenolytic cell wall component from Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum on rabbit tissue-cultured cells. Vet J 171:380–382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Okamoto K, Kanoe M, Yaguchi Y, Watanabe T, Inoue T (2007) Effects of the collagenolytic cell wall component of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum on bovine hepatocytes. Res Vet Sci 82:166–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Okwumabua O, Tan Z, Staats J, Oberst RD, Chengappa MM, Nagaraja TG (1996) Ribotyping to differentiate Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme isolated from bovine ruminal contents and liver abscesses. Appl Envron Microbiol 62:469–472Google Scholar
  106. Park SN, Park JY, Kook JK (2010) Development of species-specific polymerase chain reaction primers for detection of Fusobacterium periodonticum. Microbiol Immunol 54:750–753PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Porschen RK, Spaulding EH (1974) Phosphatase activity of anaerobic organisms. Appl Microbiol 27:744–747PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. Potts TV, Holdeman LV, Slots J (1983) Relationship among the oral fusobacteria assessed by DNA-DNA hybridization. J Dent Res 62:702–705PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Riordan T (2007) Human infection with Fusobacterium necrophorum (necrobacillosis), with a focus on Lemierre’s syndrome. Clin Microbiol Rev 20:622–659PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. Rogers AH (1998) Studies on fusobacteria associated with periodontal diseases. Aust Dent J 43:105–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Rubinstein E, Onderdonk AB, Rahal JJ Jr (1974) Peritonsillar infection and bacteremia caused by Fusobacterium gonidiaformans. J Pediatr 85:673–675PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Schink B (1984) Fermentation of tartrate enantiomers by anaerobic bacteria, and description of two new species of strict anaerobes, Ruminococcus pasteurii and Ilyobacter tartaricus. Arch Microbiol 139:409–414Google Scholar
  113. Schink B, Janssen PH (2011) Genus IV. Propionigenium Schink and Pfennig 1983, 896VP (Effective publication Schink and Pfennig 1982, 215). In: Krieg NR, Staley JT, Brown DR, Hedlund BP, Paster BJ, Ward NL, Ludwig W, Whitman WB (eds) Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology, vol 4, 2nd edn. The Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, Tenericutes (Mollicutes), Acidobacteria, Fibrobacteres, Fusobacteria, Dictyoglomi, Gemmatimonadetes, Lentisphaerae, Verrucomicrobia, Chlamydiae, and Planctomycetes. Springer, New York, pp 761–765Google Scholar
  114. Schink B, Pfennig N (1982) Propionigenium modestum gen. nov. sp. nov., a new strictly anaerobic nonsporeforming bacterium growing on succinate. Arch Microbiol 133:209–216Google Scholar
  115. Schink B, Janssen PH, Frings J (1992) Microbial degradation of natural and synthetic polymers. FEMS Microbiol Rev 9:311–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Schink B, Janssen PH, Brune A (2011) Genus III. Ilyobacter Stieb and Schink 1985, 375VP (Effective publication: Stieb and Schink 1984, 145). In: Krieg NR, Staley JT, Brown DR, Hedlund BP, Paster BJ, Ward NL, Ludwig W, Whitman WB (eds) Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology, vol 4, 2nd edn. The Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, Tenericutes (Mollicutes), Acidobacteria, Fibrobacteres, Fusobacteria, Dictyoglomi, Gemmatimonadetes, Lentisphaerae, Verrucomicrobia, Chlamydiae, and Planctomycetes. Springer, New York, pp 759–761Google Scholar
  117. Shah HN, Olsen I, Bernard K, Finegold SM, Gharbia S, Gupta RS (2009) Approaches to the study of the systematics of anaerobic, Gram-negative, non-sporeforming rods: current status and perspectives. Anaerobe 15:179–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Shanghai A, Kerstein M (2001) Lemierre’s syndrome. South Med J 94:886–887Google Scholar
  119. Shin HS, Kim M-J, Kim H-S, Park S-N, Kim DK, Baek D-H, Kim C, Kook J-K (2010) Development of strain-specific PCR primers for the identification of Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. fusiforme ATCC 51190T and subsp. vincentii ATCC 49256T. Anaerobe 16:43–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Shinjo T, Fujisawa T, Mitsuoka T (1991) Proposal of two subspecies of Fusobacterium necrophorum (Flϋgge) Moore and Holdeman: Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum subsp. nov., nom. rev. (ex Flϋgge 1886), and Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. funduliforme subsp. nov., nom. rev. (ex Hallé 1898). Int J Syst Bacteriol 41:395–397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Sikorski J, Chertkov O, Lapidus A, Nolan M, Lucas S, Del Rio TG, Tice H, Cheng J-F, Tapia R, Han C, Goodwin L, Pitluck S, Liolios K, Ivanova N, Mavromatis K, Mikhailova N, Pati A, Chen A, Palaniappan K, Land M, Hauser L, Chang Y-J, Jeffries CD, Brambilla E, Yasawong M, Rohde M, Pukall R, Spring S, Göker M, Woyke T, Bristow J, Eisen JA, Markowitz V, Hugenholtz P, Kyrpides NC, Klenk H-P (2010) Complete genome sequence of Ilyobacter polytropus type strain (CuHbu1). Stand Genom Sci 3:304–314Google Scholar
  122. Slots J, Potts TV, Mashimo PA (1983) Fusobacterium periodonticum, a new species from the human oral cavity. J Dent Res 62:960–963PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Smith GR, Thornton EA (1993) Pathogenicity of Fusobacterium necrophorum strains from man and animals. Epidemiol Infect 110:499–506PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. Spaulding EH, Rettger LF (1937) The Fusobacterium genus: I. Biochemical and serological classification. J Bacteriol 34:535–563PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. Staley JT, Whitman WB (2011) Family I. Fusobacteriaceae fam. nov. In: Krieg NR, Staley JT, Brown DR, Hedlund BP, Paster BJ, Ward NL, Ludwig W, Whitman WB (eds) Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology, vol 4, 2nd edn, The Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, Tenericutes (Mollicutes), Acidobacteria, Fibrobacteres, Fusobacteria, Dictyoglomi, Gemmatimonadetes, Lentisphaerae, Verrucomicrobia, Chlamydiae, and Planctomycetes. Springer, New York, p 748Google Scholar
  126. Stieb M, Schink B (1984) A new 3-hydroxybutyrate fermenting anaerobe, Ilyobacter polytropus, gen. nov. sp. nov., possessing various fermentation pathways. Arch Microbiol 140:139–146Google Scholar
  127. Strauss J, White A, Ambrose C, McDonald J, Allen-Vercoe E (2008) Phenotypic and genotypic analyses of clinical Fusobacterium nucleatum and Fusobacterium periodonticum isolates from the human gut. Anaerobe 14:301–309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Sutter VL, Sugihara PT, Finegold SM (1971) Rifampicin-blood-agar as a selective medium for the isolation of certain anaerobic bacteria. Appl Microbiol 22:777–780PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. Tadepalli S, Stewart GC, Nagaraja TG, Narayanan SK (2008a) Human Fusobacterium necrophorum strains have a leukotoxin gene and exhibit leukotoxic activity. J Med Microbiol 57:225–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Tadepalli S, Stewart GC, Nagaraja TG, Narayanan SK (2008b) Leukotoxin operon and differential expressions of the leukotoxin gene in bovine Fusobacterium necrophorum subspecies. Anaerobe 14:13–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Tadepalli S, Stewart GC, Nagaraja TG, Jang SS, Narayanan SK (2008c) Fusobacterium equinum possesses a leukotoxin gene and exhibits leukotoxin activity. Vet Microbiol 127:89–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Tadepalli S, Narayanan SK, Stewart GC, Chengappa MM, Nagaraja TG (2009) Fusobacterium necrophorum: a ruminal bacterium that invades liver to cause abscesses in cattle. Anaerobe 15:36–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Talan DA, Citron DM, Abrahamian FM, Moran GJ, Goldstein EJ (1999) Bacteriologic analysis of infected dog and cat bites. N Engl J Med 340:85–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Tamada H, Harasawa R, Shinjo T (1985) Isolation of bacteriophage in Fusobacterium necrophorum. Nihon Juigaku Zasshi 47:483–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Tan ZL, Nagaraia TG, Chengappa MM (1994) Biochemical and biological characterization of ruminal Fusobacterium necrophorum. FEMS Microbiol Lett 120:81–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Tan ZL, Nagaraja TG, Chengappa MM (1996) Fusobacterium necrophorum infections: virulence factors, pathogenic mechanisms and control measures. Vet Res Commun 20:113–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Tateishi F, Hasegawa-Nakamura K, Nakamura T, Oogai Y, Komatsuzawa H, Kawamata K, Douchi T, Hatae M, Naguchi K (2012) Detection of Fusobacterium nucleatum in chronic tissues of high-risk pregnant women. J Clin Periodontol 39:417–424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Tsuchiya C, Sakata T, Sugita H (2008) Novel ecological niche of Cetobacterium somerae, an anaerobic bacterium in the intestinal tracts of freshwater fish. Lett Appl Microbiol 46:43–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Van Gylswyk NO, Morris EJ, Els HJ (1983) The sporulation and cell wall structure of Clostridium polysaccharolyticum comb. nov. (formerly Fusobacterium polysaccharolyticum). J Gen Microbiol 121:491–493Google Scholar
  140. Vasstrand EN (1981) Lysozyme digestion and chemical characterization of the peptidoglycan of Fusobacterium nucleatum Fev 1. Infect Immun 33:75–82PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  141. Vasstrand EN, Hofstad T, Endresen C, Jensen HB (1979) Demonstration of lanthionine as a natural constituent of the peptidoglycan of Fusobacterium nucleatum. Infect Immun 25:775–780PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  142. Vasstrand EN, Jensen HB, Miron T, Hofstad T (1982) Composition of peptidoglycans in Bacteroidaceae: determination and distribution of lanthionine. Infect Immun 36:114–122PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  143. Walsh LJ, Stritzel F, Yamazaki K, Bird PS, Gemmell E, Seymour GJ (1989) Interleukin-1 and interleukin-1 inhibitor production by human adherent cells stimulated with periodontopathic bacteria. Arch Oral Biol 34:679–683PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Watson J, Matsui GY, Leaphart A, Wiegel J, Rainey FA, Lovell CR (2000) Reductively debrominating strains of Propionigenium maris from burrows of bromophenol-producing marine infauna. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50:1035–1042PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Widdel F, Pfennig N (1981) Studies on dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria that decompose fatty acids. I. Isolation of new sulfate-reducing bacteria enriched with acetate from saline environments: description of Desulfobacter postgatei gen. nov., sp. nov. Arch Microbiol 129:395–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Yamaguchi M, Kanoe M, Kai K, Okada Y (1999) Actin degradation concomitant with Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum adhesion to bovine portal cells. Microbios 98:87–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Yamazaki K, Polak B, Bird PS, Gemmell E, Hara K, Seymour GJ (1989) Effects of periodontopathic bacteria on IL-1 and IL-1 inhibitor production by human polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Oral Microbiol Immunol 4:193–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Yarza P, Ludwig W, Euzéby J, Amann R, Schleifer KH, Glöckner FO, Rosselló-Móra R (2010) Update of the All-Species Living Tree Project based on 16S and 23S rRNA sequence analyses. Syst Appl Microbiol 33:291–299. doi:10.1016/j.syapm.2010.08.001PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Zhao J-S, Manno D, Hawari J (2009) Psychrilyobacter atlanticus gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine member of the phylum Fusobacteria that produces H2 and degrades nitramine explosives under low temperature conditions. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 59:491–497PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Zhou H, Bennett G, Kennan RM, Rood JL, Hickford JGH (2009a) Identification of a leukotoxin sequence from Fusobacterium equinum. Vet Microbiol 133:394–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Zhou H, Bennett G, Hickford JGH (2009b) Detection of Fusobacterium equinum on footrot infected hooves of sheep and cattle. Vet Microbiol 134:400–401PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of DentistryUniversity of OsloOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations