CIE Whiteness

Living reference work entry


The Commission Internationale de l’éclairage (CIE) whiteness formula was recommended in 1986 as an assessment method for white materials [ 1]. For the CIE 1931 standard colorimetric observer, the whiteness index W is given by
$$ W=Y + 800\ \left({x}_{\mathrm{n}}\hbox{--} x\right) + 1,\kern-0.15em 700\ \left({y}_{\mathrm{n}}\hbox{--} y\right), $$
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access


  1. 1.
    CIE, Colorimetry Second Edition: The Evaluation of Whiteness, pp. 36–38. CIE Publication 15.2 (1986)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hunt, R.W.G.: The Reproduction of Colour. Chichester, UK: Wiley (2004)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wyszecki, G., Stiles, W.S.: Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae. Hoboken, USA: Wiley (1982)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hayhurst, R., Smith, K.J.: Instrumental evaluation of whiteness. J. Soc. Dye. Colour. 111, 263–266 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    MacAdam, D.L.: The specification of whiteness. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 188–191 (1934)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ganz, E.: Whiteness measurement. J. Color Appearance 1, 33–41 (1972)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ganz, E.: Whiteness formulas: a selection. Appl. Optics 18(7), 1073–1078 (1979)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ganz, E., Griesser, R.: Whiteness: assessment of tint. Appl. Optics 20(8), 1395–1396 (1981)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ganz, E., Pauli, H.K.A.: Whiteness and tint formulas of the Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage: approximations in the L*a*b* color space. Appl. Optics 34(16), 2998–2999 (1995)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Uchida, H.: A new whiteness formula. Color Res. Appl. 23(4), 202–209 (1998)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jafari, R., Amirshahi, S.H.: Variation in the decisions of observers. Color. Technol. 124(2), 127–131 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Luo, W., Westland, S., Ellwood, R., Pretty, I., Cheung, V.: Development of a whiteness index for dentistry. J. Dent. 37, e21–e26 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Colour Science & TechnologyUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK